McGee Semester II Final Review
Terms in this set (79)
What were the factors in the growth of Imperialism from 1870-1914?
1. European Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution 2. Battle of Lepanto 1571 3. Holy League 4. Nationalism 5. Fight for warm water ports
What two eras in European history had altered the balance of power in Europe's favor regarding their advantage over non-Western areas?
Scientific Revolution and European Renaissance
Battle of Lepanto
(1571) Hapsburgs defeated Muslims off the coast of Italy
Catholic organization between Venice, Genoa, and the pope led by Spain against Turkish encroachments in the Mediterranean and resulted in a stunning victory and control of the Balkans
What actions did Catherine the Great take to drive the Ottomans out of their area?
Catherine the Great drove Ottomans and Safavids out of Black Sea because she wanted the ONLY warm water port and access to the Caspian Sea
Loyalty to a specific area or region
What were the strengths of the Ottoman Empire?
Commitment to justice for all
Tolerance for "non-believers"
Efficient tax system
Control of provinces
What were the weaknesses of the Ottoman Empire?
Government depended on two individuals- the sultan and the grand vizier
Government was military-based and needed conquests
Inability to convert Sharia code (church and state) to changes
Blind to secular education
What were the political, economic, social, and military factors that influenced the gradual decline of the Ottoman Empire beginning in the 16th century?
Economic: After 1550, Atlantic trade weakened monopoly
Military: AFter 1550, janissaries were allowed to marry which promoted localism
Technological: From 17th century on, they were technologically inferior
Why did the Safavids disappear as a dynasty by the 1700's?
There were too many tribes and alliances to achieve a centralized government
What was the relationship between the Mughals and the British East India Company?
The British East India Company was founded in 1600, while Akbar was still on the throne. Initially it was only interested in trade, and had to content itself with working around the fringes of the Mughal Empire. As the Mughals weakened, however, the BEI grew increasingly powerful
(1658-1707) Mughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great', under whom the empire reached its greatest extent, only to collapse after his death
What impact did the arrival of the French in India in the 1670's have on English-Mughal relations?
It strained it because the Mughals were associating with the French
What were the effects of the Treaty of Paris (1763) on India?
ended the Seven Years War in Europe and the parallel French and Indian War in North America. Under the treaty, Britain won all of Canada and almost all of the modern United States east of the mississippi
Reformer of the East India Company administration of india in the 1790's. reduced power of local British administrators, checked widespread corruption, eventually placed in charge of India
What were the four responses that began around 1890 by the Muslim world to the external pressures they were facing?
Refuse it. Accept it. Tolerate it. Protest it.
Nationalistic movement which emphasized the unity of all Arabs, and sought to end foreign control in the Middle East
Sultan Selim III
The first to initiate reforms known as the Tanzimat (New Order) Reforms in 1793
Modernized army and navy
Ulama and janissaries opposed him and deposed him in 1807
-Permanently reignited the reorganization in 1826
-Dismantled the Janissary Corps, banned the Sufi (religious brotherhood)
-Schools for training students in European languages
What reforms did Mahmud II attempt beginning in the 19th Century?
Creation of new military unit and suppression of Janissaries
-Added the Rose Chamber Transcript of 1839
-Declared legal equality of all Ottomans
-Replaced the feudal system with individual ownership
-New law code based on European model
-Opposed to further reforms
-Young Ottomans began to exert pressure for the political liberalization of the Ottoman Society
Movement of young intellectuals to institute liberal reforms, teach in westernized schools and build a feeling of national identity in the Ottoman Empire in the second half of the nineteenth century
Young rebellious people in the Ottoman Empire who forced the Sultan to reform; ruled from 1913 to World War I
Committee for Union and Progress
-Abdul Hamid II was deposed in 1909 and replaced by a junta called the Committee for Union and Progress
-CUP led Ottoman Empire into World War I as an ally of Germany
Abdul Hamid II
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, young Turks deposed him and sent him to exile. In power, he was suspended the constitution, dissolved parliament, exiled liberals, and executed others
(r. 283-246 B.C.)
Egyptian King Ptolemy II conquered Anatolia and Syria. He also expanded bureaucracy, refined the tax system, established new merchant posts on the Red Sea and built institutes and libraries. Transformed Alexandria into the center of Greek culture and Hellenistic world learning. Also encouraged subjects to worship him as a god.
an officer of the Ottoman army who seized power and established a separate Egyptian state independent from Ottoman Empire in 1805
Ferdinand de Lesseps
French diplomat who supervised the construction of the Suez Canal (1805-1894)
The First Concession
Grant of permission to build the Suez Canal from Muhammad Sa'id to de Lesseps
British statesman who as Prime Minister brought controlling interest in the Suez Canal and made Queen Victoria the empress of India (1804-1881)
Gamal Abdal Nasser
Egyptian leader, first true Egyptian to rule Egypt since 6th century, called for help after British gave up on Egypt's government, led a coup, instigated the 1956 Suez War (ended with the Un influenced seizure of the Suez Canal by Egypt)
Don Francisco DeSouza
Brazilian born prominent slave trader in West Africa, specifically Ouidah
Which nations colonized the regions of West Africa?
Britain: Gold Coast, Sierra Leone
France: French West Africa
Which nations colonized the regions of East Africa?
France: Zanzibar, Reunion Island
Which nations colonized the regions of North Africa?
Which nations colonized the regions of Central Africa?
Belgium: The Congo under King Leopold II
King Leopold II
King of Belgium, He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the rule of the Congo Free State (to 1908) and opened up the African interior to European trade along the Congo River
Scottish missionary and explorer who discovered the Zambezi River and Victoria Falls (1813-1873), trekked through unknown African areas to promote Christianity, presumed dead until found by Henry Stanley
British-American explorer of Africa, famous for his expeditions in search of Dr. David Livingstone. He helped King Leopold II establish the Congo Free State by forging treaties
-Founder of DeBeers diamond company (at one time marketing 90% of the worlds diamonds)
-Founded the British colony Rhodesia (now Zambia and Zimbabwe)
-Ardent supporter of colonialism and imperialism
wrote Imperialism (1902)
-Imperialism is an unsound theory
-Places the unsound theory
-Places the entire system (Great Britain) at the mercy of any group that feels it has the right or duty to imperialize
-Ex. DeBeers diamond mines in Africa (British citizens are paying for this business in a faraway land with their taxes)
- "Most reckless in society are dictating foreign policy"
(1864-1936) The White Man's Burden, English writer and poet, defined the "white man's burden" as the duty of EUropean and Euro-American peoples to bring order and enlightenment to distant lands; White versus non-white tensions, different means inferior
Dutch East India Co.
The East India Company of the Netherlands that was established to create trade throughout Asia. It became wealthier than England's company and eventually dominated the region. Colonized in South Africa
Dutch farmers and settlers in South Africa
Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal
War between Great Britain and the Boers in South Africa over control of rich mining country. Great Britain won and created the Union of South Africa comprised of all the South African colonies
An imperialistic war of the British and Boers vs. the Zulu people in South Africa. The combined forces easily beat the poorly armed Zulus
-Sultan of Oman
-1832, established the Zanzibar Sultanate (muslim) over Swahili Coast
-One of the few Islamic nation-states on continent
a government system on Zanzibar island that controlled the Swahili coast of Africa. They had a rich commercial trade that exported ivory and slaves in 1832
attack on Catholic Church, attacked papal infallibility, built German unity through selection of a common enemy
corruption of Third Republic in France exposed
accusations of treason against officer turn out to be anti-semitic
third republic forged papers and financial documents
Treaty of Nanking
Cause: rebellion against Western intrusion (get foreigners out)
Solution: destroy the foreginers
European Involvement: 20,000 British, French, Russia, American, and Japanese Troops
Outcomes: Nationalists and Communists, call for new government to replace weak one
Cause: economy (opium problem)
Solution: Europe helped put down the revolt
European Involvement: aid becomes British and French attacks
Outcomes: Treaty of Tianjin- Hong Kong is "leased" to Great Britain
meaning enlightened rulers, ended shogunate system, started to industrialize and build up their empire, "drive out the barbarians.." was their motto
abolished in 1868 by Meiji restoration
Japanse diplomatic journey around the world initiated by the Meiji rulers in order to attain a western style army (important for modernization of Japan after isolation from the West)
"Silk for Railroads"
silk for industrial knowledge, give west what they want and get something in return, was the major difference between Japan and China
"Open Up the Country to Drive Out the Barbarians"
Philosophy of the Meiji Reign
forgotten city, national parks have taken it over and it is not open to the public, evidence is poorly stored
ancient ruins found in game park, open to public and the public even rebuired the ancient queen
great city on a plateau of Zimbabwe, Africa
Bismarckian System of Alliances
1. restrain Austria-Hungary (not legit) and Russia (want support and victory)
2. prevent conflict between Russia and Austria-Hungary
3. Isolate France
Archduke of Austria-Hungary who was assassinated at Sarajevo by a Serbian terrorist group called the Black Hand. His death was the "powder-keg" to ignite WWI
What was the role of militarism in causing World War I?
What was the role of nationalism in causing World War I?
What role did the weakening Ottoman Empire play in contributing to the start of World War I?
"Sick Man of Europe"
1839 Neutrality Agreement
Germany broke it, so Great Britain declared war on August 3rd on Germany, "Scrap of Paper"
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
England, France, Russia
Germany's military plan to rapidly defeat France then fight Russia to avoid a two front war but France dug trenches and it didn't work