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The process of a white blood cell squeezing between cells to exit the blood vessel is called
Which of the following clotting factors has the most to do with strengthening and stabilizing a blood clot?
Considering Rh blood types, which of the below situations would result in maternal antibodies attacking the fetus?
b. Mom is Rh negative and fetus is Rh positive
List and briefly describe the functions of blood.
1) Transportation carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, hormones and heat
2) Regulation helps maintain pH via buffers, body temperature via properties of water in plasma, and water balance via osmotic pressure created by plasma proteins 3) Protection via clotting, antibodies, phagocytosis, and complement
Describe the negative feedback loop that controls the rate of erythropoiesis. Under what circumstances would you expect the rate of erythropoiesis to be increased? How would it be possible to tell if the rate of erythropoiesis is elevated?
Hypoxia in the kidney leads to secretion of erythropoietin, which targets proerythroblasts in red bone marrow to mature into reticulocytes, which enter circulation to become red blood cells which increase the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. The rate of red blood cell formation should also be increased in any form of anemia (reduced oxygen carrying capacity of blood), or when oxygen levels in the external environment are low (e.g., high altitudes). High levels of reticulocytes in circulation indicate an increase in erythropoiesis.
Explain the proposed role of hemoglobin in the maintenance of blood pressure.
Hemoglobin releases carbon dioxide and nitric oxide when passing through the lungs. It then picks up oxygen and super nitric oxide, which are then circulated and released to tissues. Release of super nitric oxide causes vasodilation and so, a decrease in blood pressure. Nitric oxide causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure.
On a differential white blood cell count, Ezra is found to have 85 percent neutrophils and an elevated number of band cells. What is the most likely cause of Ezra's high neutrophil count? What benefits are being provided by all these neutrophils? What is the significance of the band cells?
High neutrophil count indicates bacterial infection (most likely), and increased band cells indicates a rapid turnover of neutrophils with an increased demand for replacements. Neutrophils are phagocytes that, upon engulfing a pathogen, release antimicrobial substances, such as lysozyme, oxidants, and defensins.
Why does damaged endothelium present an increased risk of blood clotting?
Blood may come in contact with collagen in the surrounding basal lamina, which activates clotting factor XII, which ultimately leads to the formation of fibrin clots. Platelets are also damaged by contact with damaged endothelium and begin their release reaction.
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