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Scientific Method & Experimentation
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Terms in this set (51)
What are the steps of the scientific method?
Observation, Hypothesis, Experiment, Data Collection (analyze), conclusion (report), Retest
Describe scientific observations.
They are something a scientist notices through their senses about their natural world
What is a hypothesis?
A suggested solution to the problem or a prediction of an outcome
How should a hypothesis be written?
As an "If...then...because..." statement
What is an experiment?
A procedure to test the hypothesis
How is an experiment validated?
by including many repeated trials
Variable
A factor that can change in an experiment
What is the independent variable?
the experimental factor changed by scientists
What is the independent variable also known as?
manipulated variable
On what axis is the independent variable plotted?
X-axis
What is the dependent variable?
The experimental factor that is observed or measured (the result)
what is the dependent variable also known as?
responding variable
On what axis is the dependent variable graphed?
y-axis
What is a control group?
The group that does not receive the experimental treatment in an experiment but is used as a benchmark for comparison
What are experimental constants?
factors in an experiment that remain the same so they don't impact the results
What are extraneous variables?
factors in an experiment that are not intentionally studies and may affect the results
Qualitative data
descriptive data
quantitative data
Data associated with mathematical models and statistical techniques
How is data organized?
charts, tables, graphs
conclusion
Restates the hypothesis and explains whether or not the data supports or rejects the hypothesis
Why should experiments be retested?
To verify/validate results
What is peer review?
a process in which scientists examine other scientists' work
What is a procedure?
a step-by-step guide to direct the reader through a task
What should all procedures start with?
a verb
What should be written before procedures?
purpose statement, safety precautions, supplies, prerequisite skills
what is a measure of central tendency?
a summary statistic (a single number that represents a whole set of numbers) that represents the center point or typical value of a data set
Why are measures of central tendency used?
to analyze and explain data
mean
the average of a data set
median
The middle number in a set of numbers that are listed in order
mode
The value that occurs most frequently in a given data set.
range
Difference between highest and lowest scores in a set of data.
metric system
a system of measurement based on the number 10
What is SI?
International System of Measurement
Why was the metric system developed?
to create a universal/standard system of measurement
How do you find the volume of a solid cube?
length x width x height
What is the base unit used to measure volume of a liquid?
Liter
What is the base unit used to measure length or distance?
meter
what is the base unit used to measure volume of a solid?
cubic meters
What is the base unit used to measure mass?
grams
What tools are used to measure liquid volume?
beaker, graduated cylinder, pipette
What tools are used to measure mass?
balance, scale
10 mm = _________ cm
1 cm
1 m = _______ cm
100 cm
.25 m = ________ cm
25 cm
What is the curved line at the top of liquid in a container called?
meniscus
1 kg = _____ g
1000 g
What is the volume of a cube with measurements of 5 cm x 5 cm x 2 cm?
50 cm3 (cubic centimeters)
what is the mode of the data set: 4,10,8,6,2,4,14?
mode is 4
What is the range of the data set: 2,4,5,8,10
range is 8
what is the median of the data set: 2,4,6,8,10
median is 6
What is the mean of the data set: 5,5,10,10, 20
mean is 10
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