BIO SI sessions for Exam 1
Terms in this set (71)
cancel out the results of unwanted variables
The culture of science is NOT
The culture of science is
self-correcting, competitive, cooperative
The fact that mitochondria and chloroplasts reproduce the same as prokaryotes is evidence for what?
endosymbiotic origin of eukaryotes
An atom of argon has three electron shells, all of which are full. Its mass number is 40. How many neutrons does it have?
Goiters are a result of what?
What kind of bonds are found within a water molecule?
polar covalent bonds
As pH increases what happens to the molarity of hydroxide ions?
What type of bond takes the most energy to break and is also the strongest bond?
What bond takes the least energy to break and is also the weakest bond?
van der waals
What property primarily allows life to survive in our ocean?
the solid form of water is less dense than the liquid form
An asymmetric carbon atom is a carbon atom that is attached to four different types of atoms or groups of atoms, these allow for what?
Rain is usually slightly acidic. However, buring fossil fuels is causing acid precipitation that affect the solubility of soil minerals. Acids do what?
decrease pH and increase [H+]
What is Potential energy?
- stored energy
- the energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure
What is Kinetic energy?
energy of motion
What is the maximum number of hydrogen atoms that can be covalently bonded in a molecule containing four carbons?
Solution "A" has a pH of 6 and Solution "B" has a pH of 9. Solution A has a hydrogen ion concentration that is what?
1,000 times higher than that of solution B
What is true about geometric isomers?
they must contain a double bond
As the number of protons increase across the periodic table....
the atomic number increases and electronegativity increases
What is a key way science is distinguished from other styles of inquiry?
it relies on data and measurements that cna be verified by others
What is an example of cohesion?
water molecules "sticking: to other water molecules
What is an example of adhesion?
water molecules "sticking" to another substance and capillary action
Water has a high heat of vaporization, or what?
quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 gram to be converted from liquid to gas
The basic functions of all life must be ablt to accomplish what?
The Cell Theory
1. all organisms are made of cells
2. chemical reactions necessary for life take place within cells
3. all cells arise only from existing cells
4. cells contain hereditary information in DNA
Evidence supporting an endosymniotic origin of Eukaryotes
- chloroplasts & mitochondria have two membranes
- chloroplasts & mitochondria have their own chromosomes
- chloroplasts and mitochondria have ribosomes similar in structure to other prokaryotes
- chloroplasts & mitochondria reproduce by binary fission, the same as prokaryotes
In order to be a hypothesis, the statement must be what?
falsifiable and testable
How many variables are tested at one time in a controlled experiment?
Why do we need control variables?
minimize outside influences on the dependant variable while ensuring that the effects independent variable are the only thing being measured.
What is a null hypothesis?
null means zero. so a null hypothesis states that two variables are not related.
What is matter?
Anything that has mass and takes up space
- made up of elements
What are the top 4 essential elements of life?
Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, hydrogen
Deficencies of trace elements can lead to health problems, therefore we have them in large quantities in our bodies. (T/F)
no nucleus or membrane, bacteria and archaea
have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles,
I have many chloroplasts, plasmodesmata, a cell wall and a large vacuole, what am I?
What is the simpliest way to define evolution?
decent with modification
What is natural selection?
mechanism for evolution; has top be inheritable
What are some examples of adaptation?
long neck on giraffs to eat the leaves on the taller trees
What are ways that we know species have variation?
The more effectively you pass on your genes, the higher your what?
chances of your offspring surviving and reproducing
The adaptation of an organism to its environment is best explained by what?
During your annual summer camping trip you find unicellular organism that has multiple chloroplasts and flagellum. In which group do you think it should be classified?
Who came up with the theory that describes how the already accepted idea of decent with modification primarily worked?
A biologist studying interactions between organisms in a rainforest could be working in which level of life's hierarchy.
consists of a certain kind of atom that is different from those of other elements
the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
differ in the number of neutrons in the atomic nucleus
- have the same number pf protons but differnt number of neutrons
- most are stable, radioactivce are not stable
A charged atom; atoms with more or fewer electrons than the number of protons
- a substance consisting of two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio
- has characteristics different from those of its elements (emergent properties)
consists of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
A covalent bond between two atoms is likely to be nonpolar if what?
the two atoms have similar electronegativities and share electrons equally
A covalent chemical bond is one in which what?
valence electrons of 2 atoms are shared so that each has a full octet
A hydrogen bond is what?
forms when hydrogen atom covalently bonds to one other electronegative atom
The properties of water make it essential for life as well as we know it. These properties are a result of what?
the polarity of water molecules
What does "polar molecule" mean?
the atoms have different electronegativities, share electrons unequally
How many hydrogen bonds can one molecule of water make?
What property of water describes the attraction of water molecules to each other?
The deficiency of which trace element can lead to low oxygen carrying capacity in the blood?
What is organic chemistry? Why is it important for understanding biology?
- study of carbon containing compounds
- carbon is the backbone of life
How is carbon fixed from the atmosphere?
Ice floats because why?
the amount of hydrogen bonding spaces the molecules far apart creating a less dense structure
What elements make up over 96% of living matter?
Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Hydrogen
What type of medication can be used to treat people with chronic high blood pressure?
Using a mirror image of a molecule will not affect how it is metabolized in the body. (T/F)
What are the 4 basic functions of life?
1. uptake nutrients/energy
2. excrete waste
3. respond to stimuli
4. grow and reproduce
Archea are more closely related to what?
What emergent properties of water contribute to Earth's fitness for life:
2. Moderation of temperature
3. Expansion upon freezing
4. Versatility as a solvent
- attraction between water molecules
- allows for surface tension (the ability of water to pull itself into the shape with the smallest surface)
Waters moderation of temperature
- absorbs heat from air that is warmer and releasing the stored heat to air that is cooler
- allows water to minimize temperature fluctuations to within limits that permit life in many envirnments
- high specific heat capacity
What is an enantiomer?
a pair of molecules that are mirror images of each other.
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