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This is any substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm an unborn child.


Infant novelty preferences have been discovered by assessing infants'


This is the biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience.


This is known as the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

Jean Piaget

Which psychologist was most influential in shaping our understanding of cognitive development?


What are people's conceptual frameworks for understanding their experiences.


Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

What is the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?


When Tommy's mother hides his favorite toy under a blanket, he acts as though it no longer exists and makes no attempt to retrieve it. Tommy is clearly near the beginning of Piaget's ________ stage.


Mrs. Pearson cut Judy's hot dog into eight pieces and Sylvia's into six pieces. Sylvia cried because she felt she wasn't getting as much hot dog as Judy. Piaget would say that Sylvia doesn't understand the principle of


This is the difficulty perceiving things from another person's point of view.

preoperational; concrete operational

According to Piaget, egocentrism is to conservation as the ________ stage is to the ________ stage.

Formal operational

At what stage do people begin to think abstractly


Infants develop a fear of strangers at about 8 months of age because they can't assimilate unfamiliar faces into their

Body contact

Studies of monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that mother-infant emotional bonds result primarily from mothers providing infants with


Konrad Lorenz did studies on what aspect of attachment

Secure attachment

One-year-old Eunice is not overly fearful of strangers but she clearly prefers being held by her mother than by anyone else. Her behavior best illustrates


Evidence that easy, relaxed infants develop secure attachments more readily than difficult, emotionally intense babies would illustrate the importance of


What parenting style
imposes rules and expects obedience.


Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be


This starts with the beginnings of sexual maturity and lasts until independent adulthood.

Primary sexual characteristics

The body structures that enable reproduction are the


The first ejaculation in boys is known as


The selective loss of unused connections among brain cells is called

Post Conventional

According to Kohlberg, morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents ________ morality.


According to Kohlberg, morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents ________ morality.

preconventional; conventional

Avoiding physical punishment is to ________ morality as respecting the laws of society is to ________ morality.


According to Erikson, achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the


According to Erikson, failure to resolve the tasks of middle adulthood leads to a sense of __________ involving a concern for one's own needs and comforts only.


This is the cessation of menstruation.


_________ studied moral development by posing moral dilemmas to children of different ages

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