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34 terms

6 Learning- Introduction to Psychology

STUDY
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classical
Ivan Pavlov's experiments with dogs yielded information about this type of conditioning
Tolman
His research showed that reinforcement is not always necessary for learning to occur
cognitive map
A mental picture is another name for a
variable-ratio
The most effective form of reinforcement schedule is
negative reinforcement
Identify the type of reinforcement used in the following examples :Someone who becomes too warm in the sun and moves in the shade.
primary reinforcer
stimulus that encourages a behavior by meeting an organism's biological need
spontaneous recovery
action in which an organism displays responses that were extinguished earlier
massed learning
trying to learn something all at once
partial reinforcement
interval schedules and ratios are examples of this
personal contract
behavior modification in which a person sets goals and creates a system of rewards to encourage desired behavior
token economy
form of behavior that "pays" if people act correctly
conditioning
type of learning that involves stimulus-response connections
observational learning
modeling is a form of this type of learning
generalization
act of responding in the same ways to stimuli that seem to be similar; is a form of classical conditioning and enables people and animals to adapt to their environment
chaining
learning in which each step of a sequence is learned and leads to the next step
flooding
The method of ______ involves exposing a person to a harmless stimulus until he or she is no longer afraid of it.
latent
The form of learning that keeps knowledge hidden until it is needed is called ______.
shaping
_____ is a method of teaching complex behavior behaviors by breaking them down into manageable parts.
negative
A/An _____ reinforcer increases the frequency of the behavior that follows when a reinforcer is removed.
previewing
The first step in the PQ4R method involves ______ the subject matter in the textbook.
distributed
To review something effectively you should use the method of learning known as _______learning.
systematic desensitization
is a form of behavior modification that uses relaxation techniques to "flood" a person with good feelings while exposing them to objects that they fear.
adapt
Classical conditioning helps animals and people ___ to their environments.
Albert Bandura
Famous for the Bobo Doll experiments on observational learning & influence in the Socio-Cognitive Perspective
BF Skinner
Behaviorist that developed the theory of operant conditioning by training pigeons and rats
counterconditioning
A therapy procedure based on classical conditioning that replaces a negative response to a stimulus with a positive response
fixed-ratio schedule
A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is delivered after a fixed number of responses has occurred; Example: buy ten get one free
variable-ratio
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses; An example would be playing the lottery
fixed-interval
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed; an example would be studying for a weekly quiz
variable-interval
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals; an examples would be checking your email
negative punishment
Decreasing behavior by stopping or reducing positive stimuli. (Subtracting something good); an example would be your parent taking away the car until you bring your grade up in history
positive punishment
something added to decrease behavior; spanking would be an example
John B Watson
famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat
vicarious reinforcement
The reinforcement that occurs as a result of watching a model get reinforced for a specific behavior or series of behaviors.