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Ivan Pavlov's experiments with dogs yielded information about this type of conditioning


His research showed that reinforcement is not always necessary for learning to occur

cognitive map

A mental picture is another name for a


The most effective form of reinforcement schedule is

negative reinforcement

Identify the type of reinforcement used in the following examples :Someone who becomes too warm in the sun and moves in the shade.

primary reinforcer

stimulus that encourages a behavior by meeting an organism's biological need

spontaneous recovery

action in which an organism displays responses that were extinguished earlier

massed learning

trying to learn something all at once

partial reinforcement

interval schedules and ratios are examples of this

personal contract

behavior modification in which a person sets goals and creates a system of rewards to encourage desired behavior

token economy

form of behavior that "pays" if people act correctly


type of learning that involves stimulus-response connections

observational learning

modeling is a form of this type of learning


act of responding in the same ways to stimuli that seem to be similar; is a form of classical conditioning and enables people and animals to adapt to their environment


learning in which each step of a sequence is learned and leads to the next step


The method of ______ involves exposing a person to a harmless stimulus until he or she is no longer afraid of it.


The form of learning that keeps knowledge hidden until it is needed is called ______.


_____ is a method of teaching complex behavior behaviors by breaking them down into manageable parts.


A/An _____ reinforcer increases the frequency of the behavior that follows when a reinforcer is removed.


The first step in the PQ4R method involves ______ the subject matter in the textbook.


To review something effectively you should use the method of learning known as _______learning.

systematic desensitization

is a form of behavior modification that uses relaxation techniques to "flood" a person with good feelings while exposing them to objects that they fear.


Classical conditioning helps animals and people ___ to their environments.

Albert Bandura

Famous for the Bobo Doll experiments on observational learning & influence in the Socio-Cognitive Perspective

BF Skinner

Behaviorist that developed the theory of operant conditioning by training pigeons and rats


A therapy procedure based on classical conditioning that replaces a negative response to a stimulus with a positive response

fixed-ratio schedule

A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is delivered after a fixed number of responses has occurred; Example: buy ten get one free


In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses; An example would be playing the lottery


In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed; an example would be studying for a weekly quiz


In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals; an examples would be checking your email

negative punishment

Decreasing behavior by stopping or reducing positive stimuli. (Subtracting something good); an example would be your parent taking away the car until you bring your grade up in history

positive punishment

something added to decrease behavior; spanking would be an example

John B Watson

famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat

vicarious reinforcement

The reinforcement that occurs as a result of watching a model get reinforced for a specific behavior or series of behaviors.

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