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Louis Sullivan

This was a United States architect. He was known for his steel framed skyscrapers.

The New Immigrants

These were from Eastern and Southern Europe. These people were new to America and were highly unaccepted. They came seeking job opportunities and lived in tenements.

Jane Addams

The creator of the Hull House. She was one of the few college educated woman and her Hull House was one of the most effective settlement homes.

Florence Kelley

She was an advocate for improving the lives of women and children. She was one of the beginning people devoted to social welfare. (Social Welfare). She helped prohibit child labor as well as shorten women's hours.

Lillian Wald

She was known as the mother of public health nursing. With her help she cared for the poor immigrant population (also living and working among them).

Emma Lazurus

She was a poet. She wrote of immigration.

Dwight Moody

He was part of the social gospel movement. He proclaimed the gospel of kindness and forgiveness. He also adapted the old-time religion to the facts of city life.

Cardinal Gibbons

He was recognized as the leader of the Church in America. He wrote 'The Faith of Our Fathers' and aided conversions to the religion. He was highly revered (even presidents respected him) He was a good person and is known for his work of good and non vice actions.

Mary Eddy

She was the founder of the Church of science. She led a large amount of followers before they died out. She was one of the new denominations in Church.

Charles Darwin

He was a philanthropist who created the idea of natural selection and the best fit. Philanthropists used his theories to back up their big business schemes and venture.

Booker T. Washington

He was an African American self educated man, who worked his way through life. He aided the poor and helped black children learn to read and write. He believed that if African Americans helped themselves individually equality would eventually come (which I believe is true in a way since after education African Americans helped bring equality in Brown vs Board of Education)

George Washington Carver

He founded many different uses for the peanut. This helped stimulate Southern Economy substantially. He was an agricultural scientist.

W.E.B. Dubois

He believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately unlike Booker T. Washington. He also helped the movement by creating the NAACP. He was one of the few educated black men with a Ph.D


National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. This organization continued what the Freedmen's Bureau was doing except did more, with black education, segregation and rights.

John Hopkins

One of the private schools that prospered during this time. This school still stands today and is very prestigious in its education and curriculum.

Louis Pasteur

He was a French chemist and biologist. He experimented on fermentation and it resulted in the process of pasteurization. (He found out that if you heat a bacteria it would die)

Randolph Hearst

Was one of those who believed in yellow journalism. He was one of the newspaper writers who flourished during this time. He helped increase newspapers in the United States.

Joseph Pultizer

He created the first modern, mass circulation newspaper.This was a big deal seeing as many people were "Word hungry" as people were able to read now. He tried to revolutionize newspapers and make them more lively.

Henry George

He was a popular economist. He wrote Progress and Poverty and focused on the growing population, single tax ideas and the misdistribution of wealth. This was sold widely in America.

Emily Dickinson

She was a recluse poet. She wrote thousands of works but did not want to publish them. The only two of her works published during her lifetime she did not give permission to be sold. They found her poetry after she had died.

Mark Twain

He was a witty writer during this time. (Originator of the Gilded Age name) He wrote the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn as well as the Adventures of Tom Sawyer.His stories sold millions and were loved by many however he had some critics. He went into bankruptcy and had to pay his way out.

William Dean Howells

He was a fictional writer that embraced radical socialism. He was also one of the first writers that wrote realistic American fiction about social and economic issues, including, The Rise of Silas Lapham.

Henry James

He was an American writer who lived in England. He wrote numerous novels around the theme of the conflict between American innocence and European sophistication/corruption. He was famous for his short story, "The Turn of the Screw."

Carrie Catt

She was a strong women's advocate and believed in Woman equality. She was not as aggressive as Alice Paul but she believed in women's rights state by state ratification instead of to the direct source of federal votes.

Susan B. Anthony

Anthony was a political leader and lobbist in the women's rights movement. During and before the civil war she advocated abolition as well. She was a leader who led many in women suffrage. She helped widows as well as believed in non child labor.

Ida Wells

She was disgusted by the lynching of blacks. She was an African American journalist. She wanted people to speak up against the lynching and believed in petitions and boycotts. She was tough and was threatened many times.

Henry Richardson

He revolutionized and changed the direction of American architecture. His designs were based on Roman style of massive stone walls and rounded arches. This was evident as buildings continued.


As cities began to expanded upward as well as outward. Buildings began to get taller and taller.

Sister Carrie

It was one of the great American urban novels, written by Theodore Dreiser. It talks about a young woman who comes to the Big City to survive.

Marshall Field's and Macy's

This is where the Great Chicago Fire took place. It was one of the advancing companies.

Sears and Montgomery Ward

These were two catalog companies which allowed frontier people access to fashionable clothes and new inventions. It was the new way in the gilded agE.

Lung Block

This was a sickness from living in dumbbells. There was poor ventilation and air systems.

Dumbbell Tenement

These were structures, usually six to eight stories tall. They were jammed tightly against one another to accommodate from twenty-four to thirty-two families per building. The tenement had the appearance of a dumbbell when viewed from overhead.


These were place where homeless could sleep. There were verminous mattresses and they were cheap to live in.

Little Italy and Little Poland

These were the name of ghettos. The races were named Italy and Poland because these are where they originated from.

American Protective Association

This was an organization created by nativists in 1887. They campaigned for laws to restrict immigration and were native born.

Salvation Army

This was a welfare organization came to the US from England in 1880. Their goal was to provide food, shelter, and employment to the urban poor while preaching temperance and morality.

Normal Schools

These were where the "norms and standards" of educational practices were taught. Teachers were taught how to teach elementary students. This was a step in educational reform.

Morrill Act of 1862

This was another one of the Government's acts worked to encourage more settlers into the Great Plains (passed along with the Homestead Act of 1862). The Act set aside land and provided money for agricultural colleges.

Yellow journalism

This was a term given to sensationalist newspaper writing. Hearst and Pulitzer used this to attract customers as well as show their bias point of view.

Comstock Law

It was introduced to congress by Anthony Comstock. He was the most powerful spokesman and crusader against the vices. The law banned any mail that was designed to incite lust.

Divorce Revolution

Divorce was exceedingly apparent and large as many woman divorced their husbands for independence. many did not marry as well as they believed int he temperance movement.

Wild West Shows

These were entertainment showcases used to bring "the pursuit of happiness" to people. The western shows were full of mystery and adventure (raggedy Anne etc).

Barnum and Bailey Show

Originally called the "Greatest Show On Earth:. It was one of the first circus acts and performances. It flocked large audiences and is still around today.

Brooklyn Bridge

It was designed by John Roebling. It combined two structural systems which were steal cables and the arches themselves (used compression as wella s tension). It became and established the structural basis for all modern suspension bridges. Used steel, making it used in architectural work now.

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