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SOC 100 Exam 1 (3-4)
Terms in this set (13)
What are the four reasons that is it difficult to study people (compared to trees, bees, or chemical reactions)? Be able to describe each of these reasons.
1. We respond to being watched or analyzed
2. We adapt/change our behavior
3. We are motivated by a wider set of interests and instincts
4. We cannot perform experiments that risk harm
What are quantitative and qualitative data? What is the difference between the two? What are the benefits of each? Be able to distinguish quantitative data collection methods from qualitative data collection methods.
Quantitative data is data that pertains to numbers and statistics that focuses on finding general patterns. Qualitative data pertains to a deeper understanding as to why a group lives the way they do. Quantitative is cheap and can easily assess a population on surface level. Quantitative provides deep insight and context into the problem or concept in question
What are reliability and validity? How are they distinct from one another? How are they relevant for sociological analysis? Be able distinguish between a reliable and a valid measure of a specific concept (e.g., social class, intelligence, or health).
Reliability is consistent results, validity is accurate results. Reliability tests how often a certain result occurs. Validity measures how accurate results are
Generally, what types of data and data collection align with reliability and validity? How does this connect to the tension embedded in sociological research?
Sociology is interested in the general patterns and deep understandings of a society. Normally Qualitative and Quantitative data is needed to acquire both.
What are three things social scientists need to consider when conducting ethical research?
Do no harm to the patient
Participation is voluntary
Based on the documentary "Truth Be Told", how important is it to be objective when conducting research? Do all sociologists agree that objectivity should be a central goal? Why or why not
Objectivity needs to be the central goal, but it is very hard to do so without some sort of bias becoming a factor
What does it mean to say that "culture is a toolkit"? How do we "use" culture in social situations?
Culture provides you with knowledge, practice, and symbols to live in a society. We use culture through gestures, norms, etc.
What does it mean to say that something is "socially constructed"? If it's socially constructed, does that mean we can ignore it?
It means that thing has meaning and is made to be influential to us
What is the difference between folkways and mores? How do they help us understand the relationship between norms and values in society?
Folkways are things that aren't officially prohibited, but rather are culturally known and have minor punishment at best. (cutting a line). Mores are laws and written out rules that results in major punishment. They allow us to understand what holds values in a culture and society
What are material and non-material culture? Be able to provide examples of each.
Material culture are physical things that represent a broader culture (chopsticks, American flag, etc.). Non-material culture consists of non-physical items or the way a culture thinks. The symbolic culture of the society, like the National anthem.
What is the difference between high culture and pop culture? What types of culture do cosmopolitan omnivores consume? How is this a change from cultural consumption in the past?
High culture is what we believe to be the high class and pop culture is the ideas and things held commonly amongst the common culture and society.
What are subcultures and countercultures? How are they different from one another? (note: this is in the notes and in the book)
Subcultures are just smaller cultures that exist in a culture, such as a sport team at a high school. Counter cultures directly go against the prevalent culture, such as Neo-Nazis in America
What were the specific "new norms" described in the Invisibilia- The New Norm podcast (i.e. what were they changed to), and why did they have to change?
The thing that changed was the behavior amongst the oil rig workers that provided an emotionally open culture to allow for a safer more efficient production
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