Keystone Biology Terms
Keystone biology terms 2012-13
Terms in this set (88)
A term that describes a nonliving factor in an ecosystem.
The movement of particles from one area of low concentration to an area of high concentration that uses energy provided by ATP or a difference in electrical charges across a cell membrane.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
A molecule that provides energy for cellular reactions and processes. ATP releases energy when one of its high-energy bonds is broken to release a phosphate group.
The intermolecular attraction between unlike molecules. Capillary action results from the adhesive properties of water and the molecules that make up plant cells.
The artificial cultivation of food, fiber, and other foods by the systematic growing and harvesting of various organisms.
A variation of a gene's nucleotide sequence (alternate form of a gene).
The measure of the relative frequency of an allele at a genetic locus in a population; a proportion or a percentage.
a physical structure, present in multiple species, that is similar in function but different in form and inheritance.
A term that describes an organism associated with a water environment.
Changing of organic matter into other chemical forms such as fuel.
The study of energy flow (energy transformations) into and within living systems.
The movement of abiotic factors between the living and nonliving components within ecosystems; also known as nutrient cycles. (water cycle, carbon cycle, oxygen cycle, nitrogen cycle).
A group of biomacromolecules that interact with biological systems and their environments.
A large area or geographical region with distinct plant and animal groups adapted to that environment.
Zone of life on earth; all the ecosystems on Earth.
Any procedure or methodology that uses biological systems or living organisms to develop or modify either products or processes for specific use. Commonly associated with genetic engineering, which is one of it's applications.
A term describing a living or once living organism in an ecosystem.
a macromolecule that contains atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1-2-1 ratio and serves as a major source of energy for living organisms. (sugar, starch, cellulose)
Carrier (transport) protein
Proteins embedded in the plasma membrane involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, and macromolecules into and out of cells.
Series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication. Main phases are interphase, nuclear division, and cytokinesis.
complex set of chemical reactions involving an energy transformation where potential chemical energy in the bonds of "food" molecules is released and partially captured in the bonds of ATP molecules.
A change in the structure of a chromosome.
A single piece of coiled DNA and associated proteins found in linear forms in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and circular forms in the cytoplasm in prokaryotic cells; contains genes that encode traits.
Cell, cell product, or organism is copied from an original source.
a pattern of inheritance in which the phenotypic effect of two alleles in a heterozygous genotype express each phenotype of each allele fully and equally. Not expressed in any other gene combination.
Intermolecular attraction between like molecules. Surface tension results from the cohesive properties of water.
Different populations of organisms interacting in a shared environment.
Individuals or groups of organisms compete for similar resources such as territory, mates, water, and food in the same environment.
The measure of the amount or proportion of a given substance when combined with another substance.
the graduated difference in concentration of a solute per unit distance through a solution.
Organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms or their remains.
Final phase of cell cycle resulting in the division of the cytoplasm.
Organism that obtains nutrients by consuming dead and decaying organic matter which allows nutrients to be accessible to other organisms.
Movement of particles from an area of high to low concentration; result of kinetic molecular energy.
pattern or inheritance in which the phenotypic event of one allele is completely expressed within a homozygous and heterozygous genotype.
study of relationship between organisms and environment.
system composed of organisms and nonliving components of an environment.
Branch of zoology studying early development of living things.
species found in its originating location and is generally restricted to that geographic area.
Process in which a cell engulfs extracellular material through an inward folding of its plasma membrane.
organelle, containing folded membrane and sacs, responsible for production processing and transporting materials for use inside and outside a eukaryotic cell. Two forms, rough has surface ribosomes and participates in the synthesis of proteins destined for export by cell, and smooth er that has no ribosomes and participates in the synthesis of lipids and steroids as well as the transport of synthesized macromolecules.
A theorized process in which early eukaryotic cells were formed from simpler prokaryotes.
Illustrates the biomass productivity at multiple trophic levels in a given ecosystem.
A process in which energy changes from one form to another form which some of the energy is lost to the environment.
total surroundings of an organism or a group of organisms.
type of organism composed of one or more cells containing a membrane bound nucleus, specialized organelles in the cytoplasm, and a mitotic nuclear division cycle.
Cell releases substances to the extracellular environment by fusing a vesicular membrane with the plasma membrane separating the membrane at the point of fusion and allowing the substance to get released.
Located outside the cell
substances are transported across a plasma membrane with the concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins; doesn't require the use of energy.
Food Chain vs. Food web
Chain is simplified illustrating energy flow and a web is a complex arrangement of food chains.
frame shift mutation
addition or removal of one or more nucleotides that is not indivisible by three, therefore resulting in a completely different amino acid sequence than would be normal. the earlier it's done, the more altered the protein will be.
intentional insertion, alteration, or deletion of genes in an individual's cells and tissues for the purpose of treating a disease
technology that includes the process of manipulating or altering the genetic material of a cell resulting in desirable functions or outcomes that wouldn't occur naturally.
Genetically modified organism
organism whose genetic material has been altered through some genetic engineering technology or technique.
organelle found in eukaryotic cells responsible for the final stages of processing proteins for release by cell.
area that provides organism with basic needs for survival.
a characteristic in different organisms inherited by a common ancestor.
longest lasting phase, majority of functions performed, preparing for nuclear division and cytokinesis.
inside a cell
limits the existence, growth, abundance, or distribution of an individual organism or population.
group of organic compounds composed mostly of carbon and hydrogen including a proportionately smaller amount of oxygen. insoluble in water, serve as source of stored energy, component of cell membrane.
polymer with high molecular mass. within organisms there are four main groups, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
combination of components and processes that serve a common function.
two phase nuclear division that results in the eventual production of gametes with half the normal number o chromosomes.
membrane bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells; site of cellular respiration.
molecule of any compound that can react with other molecules of the same or different compound to form a polymer
process in which sister chromatids fail to separate during and after mitosis or meiosis.
movement of water or another solvent through a permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration (dilute) to an area of lower water concentration (concentrated).
thin phospholipid and protein molecule bilayer that encapsulates a cell and controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell through active or passive transport.
group of membrane bound organelles commonly found in photosynthetic organisms and mainly responsible for the synthesis and storage of food.
single base substitution causing the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide
trait in which the phenotype is controlled by two or more genes at different loci on different chromosomes.
concept based on scientific laws and axioms where general agreement is present.
organism that uses a primary energy source to conduct photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
single celled organism that lacks a membrane bound nucleus and special organelles.
macromolecule that contains the principal components of organisms; carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen; preforms a variety of structural and regulatory functions for cells.
process in which amino acids are arranged in linear sequence through the processes of transcription of DNA to RNA and the translation of RNA to a polypeptide chain.
molecular mechanism in which ions or molecules are transported across a cellular membrane requiring the use of an energy source.
cellular structure composed of RNA and proteins that is the site of protein synthesis in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell.
process in which the DNA molecule uncoils separates into two strands. the original strands become templates to make a new strand resulting in two DNA molecules just like the original.
series of predictable and orderly changes within an ecosystem over time.
relationship between two organisms (mutualism, parasitism, commensalism)
set of interacting or interdependent components real or abstract that form an integrated whole. open can interact with the environment. closed is isolated.
organism associated with a land environment.
process in which a strand of messenger ran is synthesized by using the genetic information found on a strand dna as a template
process in which a segment of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome
position of an organism in relation to the flow of energy and inorganic nutrients through an ecosystem (producer, consumer, decomposer)
physical characteristic in organism that appears to have lost its original function as a species changed over time.