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Rise of the Civilizations
Terms in this set (39)
A scholar who studies our past using written records or historic art to find answers.
Period before written records.
Studies objects made by humans called artifacts. (Tools, weapons, pottery, jewelry, fish hooks, etc.)
Studies artifacts but is more focused on the culture of society. (What people wore, what they ate, how they passed on customs, how they developed language)
The remains of ancient plants and animals. (Helps determine what people ate, what animals were around, what culture they had)
Human-like creature. (Walk upright, opposable thumbs)
- "Southern Ape"
- Lived around 4 mya
- Believed to be the common ancestor
- Proved hominids walked upright before they used tools
- "Handy Human"
- Phase between Lucy and Homo Erectus
- First hominids to use tools
- Lived around 2 mya
- "Upright Human"
- More complex tools
- First to make fire
- First to leave Africa into Europe
- Lived around 1.5 mya
- "Wise Human"
- Lived around 400,000 ya
- Split into 2 groups: Neanderthals & Homo Sapien Sapiens
- Discovered in Neander Valley, Germany
- Believed to have lived in Europe and Turkey
- Earliest people to bury their dead
- Had primitive religion
Homo Sapien Sapien
- "Wise wise human"
- Modern humans
- Believed they replaced Neanderthals
- Lived around 200,000 ya
- Found throughout the world due to migration
Out of Africa Theory
Believes homo sapiens migrated out of Africa and slowly replaced other groups they encountered.
Development from early to modern humans occurred independently in different locations in Africa, Asia, and Europe at different times.
"Old Stone Age". People learned to make stone tools and weapons. They lived in clans, they were hunter/gatherers, they were nomads. Developed crude, spoken language. Learned to make and control fire.
A person who moves from place to place in search of food.
Early religion represented what they hoped to happen.
A transition period between the Paleolithic Age and Neolithic Age. There was a gradual shift from hunting and gathering to farming. Systematic agriculture developed.
Humans learned the consistent growing of crops on a continuing basis.
The domestication of animals. This was the most important development in human history.
Cradles of Civilizations
Civilizations developed in river valleys.
A complex culture shared by a large number of people that share common elements.
Elements of Civilization
- Written Language
- Social Classes
(River valley) Fertile soil, fresh water, transportation, communication, food.
Were created to organize and regulate human activity. Maintained the food supply and defended the city.
A government ruled by a king or queen.
A government controlled by religious leaders.
Polytheistic religions developed in order to explain the forces of nature. Priests had knowledge of how to please the gods.
Belief in many gods.
Was originally developed to keep records of taxes, births, deaths.
- Priests and nobles
- Government officials
- Artisans and farmers
Reflected the beliefs of a culture. Civilizations built temples and pyramids.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ch 1 and Ch2 Sec 1 Test
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Chapter 2 Sec 3, 4 and 5 Test
Chapter 2 Section 6 and 7
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