29 terms

Ancient India

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Indus River
river that flows from Tibet, through the Himalayas and across present-day Pakistan into the Arabian Sea
subcontinent
a large land mass that is connected to a continent
Himalaya
the world's highest mountain range, forming the northern border of the Indian subcontinent
Indus Plain
flat, dry area of land where the Indus River slows down
Harappa
a city of the ancient Harappan located in the Indus Valley of South Asia
Mohenjo-Daro
a city of the ancient Harappan civilization, located in the Indus Valley
citadel
a walled fort that protects a city
Hindu Kush
a mountain range in central Asia that creates the northwestern border of the Indian subcontinent
Hinduism
the religion of India that grew out of the beliefs that of the ancient Aryan peoples; it stressed that one main force connects all of life
Vedas
in Hinduism, the ancient books of sacred songs on which much of its religious beliefs are based
caste system
the social system in Hindu society in which a person's place is the rank of the family into which he or she is born
reincarnation
a Hindu belief that people move in a constant cycle of life, death, and rebirth
dharma
in Hinduism, the laws and duties that guide the behavior of each caste member
Siddhartha Gautama
ancient Indian religious leader known as the Buddha, who founded Buddhism
Kosala
the small kingdom where Siddhartha Gautama was born
monk
a man who devotes his life to a religious group, often giving up all he owns
karma
in Hinduism and Buddhism, the end result of all of a person's good and bad acts, which determines his or her rebirth
Four Noble-Truths
in Buddhism, the principles that rule life and promise to end suffering
Eightfold Path
in Buddhism, the basic rules of behavior and belief leading to the end of suffering
Middle Way
in Buddhism, a way of life, neither too strict nor too easy that results from following the Eightfold Path
Buddhism
a religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama which teaches that the most important thing in life is to reach peace by ending suffering
Asoka
Chandragupta's grandson, expanded the empire by conquering much of southern India
Chandragupta Maurya
Founded the Maurya Empire
Samudragupta
Expanded the Gupta Empire. Allowed local kings to still rule and pay him tribute
tribute
A tax, often in the form of crops, paid by one ruler to another, usually to ensure peace or protection
Chandragupta II
Gupta empire reached its height during his rule. Expanded his power across northern India. Trade increased and he supported the arts and scholars in his court.
Kalidasa
Writer in the court of Chandragupta II, he was a poet and a playwrite. Wrote the play, Shakuntala, that is still performed in India today.
architecture
The art and science of designing buildings.
Chandragupta I
Founded the Gupta empire. Became the golden age for India.