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What is nutrition?

"the science of food, the nutrients and substances therein, their action, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease, and the process by which the organism ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, utilizes, and excretes food substances."

3 types of macronutrients

Proteins, carbs, fats

Why should you care about your diet?

Poor diet associated with 4 of 10 leading causes of death (type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, breast/colon cancer)

Other than a nutritious diet, only 2 common lifestyle habits have a stronger influence on long-term health. What are they?

Smoking, alcohol

Nutrition involves the study of...

biochemistry, biology, physiology, behavioral sciences, chemistry

What role does diet play in chronic or long-term health?

Heart disease, cancers (breast and colon), stroke, & diabetes

What role does diet play in short-term health?

Fiber - relieves constipation; caffeine -gives energy, athletic performance, affects sleep; alcohol -motor skills

6 classes of nutrients (kcal/gm in parentheses)

carbohydrate (4), protein (4), fat (9), water (0), vitamins (0), minerals (0)

5 components to a healthy diet

ABVCCM: adequacy, balance, variety, calorie control, moderation

4 Research designs

epidemiologic studies (know this definition), case studies, intervention studies (RCT), laboratory studies

All of the following are correct concerning
the Daily Reference Intake (DRI) values
except: A. the committee that determines the
values is composed of scientists.
B. the values are minimum
recommendations for virtually all healthy
C. the values are updated periodically in
light of new knowledge.
D. the values reflect daily intakes to be
achieved, on average, over time.

B. the values are minimum recommendations for virtually all healthy people

To look up the appropriate DRI values for
someone, you would need to know all of the
following about them except:
a. whether they were pregnant or lactating.
b. their sex.
c. their level of physical activity.
d. their age.

c. Their level of physical activity

According to the Acceptable Macronutrient
Distribution Ranges (AMDR), what percentage
of total calories should come from
a. 20 to 35 percent.
b. 45 to 65 percent.
c. It depends on what type of carbohydrate.
d. 10 to 35 percent.

b. 45 to 65 percent

EER stands for...

Estimated Energy Requirement; set at 50% of average population needs

AMDR stands for...

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges; 45-65% from carbs, 20-35% from fat, 10-35% from protein

Daily Values (DVs)

5% DV or less is considered low; 20% DV or more is considered high; DVs for some nutrients represent the uppermost limit (total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium)

3 nutrients without DV

trans fat, protein, sugars


fewer than 5 cal per serving

Low fat

3 grams or less of fat per serving

Less fat

25% or less than the comparison food

High fiber

5 grams or more fiber per serving

GRAS list

Generally Recognized As Safe; additives generally recognized as safe by FDA

Adequacy of diet

foods provide enough of each essential nutrient, fiber, and energy

Balance of diet

Choices do not overemphasize one nutrient or food at the expense of another

Variety of diet

Foods differ from day to day

Calorie control of diet

Foods provide amount of energy you need to maintain ideal weight

Moderation of diet

Foods do not provide excess fat, salt, sugar, or other unwanted constituents


chemicals in foods that our body needs for proper nutrition

role of nutrients

provide energy, promote growth and maintenance, and regulate body processes

which nutrients provide energy?

carbs, proteins, and lipids (fats and oils)

which nutrients promote growth and maintenance?

protein, minerals, and water

which nutrients regulate body processes?

vitamins, minerals

what are the 3 energy-yielding nutrients?

carbs, proteins, and fat

what's the main function of carbohydrates and lipids?


function of proteins

used for structural components (bones, skin, teeth, etc.); NOT usually used for energy

function of vitamins and minerals

regulation of body processes (chemical reactions)

main function of water

maintenance of fluid balance, elimination of waste, and transport of substances

red flags of unreliable nutrition info

promises of quick/easy remedies; claims that sound too good to be true; scare tactics; attacks on conventional scientists and medical practitioners; statements abt the superiority of natural dietary supplements; testimonials or anecdotes; info promoting product's benefits while overlooking its risks; vague/scientific sounding terms; sensationalism; recommendations based on a single study; etc.

websites w/ reliable nutrition & health info; (Nat'l Institutes of Health);;; (American Council on Science and Health);; (Nat'l Council Against Health Fraud)

epidemiology is the study of:

disease rates among different popul. groups, factors associated w/ disease occurrence, and how diseases are spread

A correlation occurs when....

2 variables change over the same period

limitations of epidemiologic studies

results could be coincidence; cannot establish causation; difficulty in determining which variable is responsible for the condition

intervention studies

studies of populations in which observation is accompanied by experimental manipulation of some population members; control and experimental groups; RCT-gold standard

case studies

studies of individuals; in clinical settings; researchers observes tx and apparent effects

laboratory studies

studies that are performed under tightly controlled conditions and are designed to pinpoint causes and effects; use animals or cells

quality nutrition research is....

peer reviewed, published in a respected nutrition-related journal, and reported at a nutrition or medical meeting

peer review

before acceptance for publication, research articles undergo critical analysis by peer experts in the field who were not part of the research team


encompass a variety of terms that describe values for nutrient recommendations. There are the basis for planning diets for large groups - military, school lunches, etc.

Who established the DRIs?

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, Nat'l Academy of Sciences; Panels of experts; chosen by the Nat'l Academy; independently selected. funded by DHHS, USDA, Health Canada, private industry. Serially published: 1997 & counting. (

Purpose of DRIs

standards for planning large scale diets (to aid in nutritional adequacy, to promote health/reduce risk of chronic disease); to provide a measure for evaluating inadequacy and/or excess; to assess population intakes and plan meals for large groups

What are characteristics of the DRIs?

separate values (men and women); age groups; pregnancy and lactation; apply to healthy individuals; refer to average daily intakes; may vary substantially from day to day w/o ill effect in most cases

What are the DRIs?



amt of a nutrient that should meet needs of 50% of healthy ppl


standards for recommended daily intakes that meet needs of ~98% of healthy people


assigned when no RDA can be determined. Assumes a population's avg daily nutrient intakes are adequate


highest avg amount that is unlikely to be harmful when consumed daily


avg daily energy intake that meets needs of a healthy person who is maintaining his/her weight

The DRI committee has set values for:

Viatmins, minerals, carbs, fiber, lipids, protein, water, and energy

DRI committee's Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)

45-65% from carbohydrate, 20-35% from fat, 10-35% from protein

Calorie needs are a little different however. Values are NOT set at 98% like RDA/AI. Why not?

Bc there is an obesity epidemic in this country and there is no need to recommend more calories than needed as this is detrimental. Calories set at 50% (like EAR) so this is what an avg person would need.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010

Nutrition-related lifestyle recommendations intended for people over 2 years of age; released every 5 years by law; 2010 guidelines released January 31, 2011 by USDA and HHS. Designed to promote adequate nutrition and good health; reduce risk of CVD, obesity, alcoholism, and other nutrition-related chronic conditions; form the basis for federal nutrition policy - including food assistance programs

RCT stands for...

randomized controlled trial

How many grams of fat should be consumed on an 1800 calorie diet at 25% fat?

1800 x.25=450 kcal
450 kcal/9kcal/gm=50 grams

Food guide pyramid website?

pyramid is based on...

dietary guidelines for americans 2005

Six food groups on food pyramid?

Fruits, veggies, oils, grains, milk, meat and beans

____ value is found on food labels


calcium reduces what

risk of osteoporosis

soy protein reduces what

risk of heart disease

potassium reduces what

risk of hypertension

folate reduces what

risk of neural tube defects

similarities and differences between mypyramid, Harvard's healthy eating pyramid and Dr. Weil's anti-inflammatory pyramid


nutrient dense vs energy dense

nutrient dense foods have a lot of nutrition per bite whereas energy dense foods have a lot of calories per bite but aren't necessarily nutritious


use of living things to manufacture improved foods and drugs


Federal Trade Commission; government agency that enforces consumer protection laws

Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010

Recommendations: increase intake of whole grains, reduced intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, focus on the total number of calories consumed, and monitor food intake; reduce sodium intake; limit saturated fats to 10% of total cals (substitute mono and poly unsat fats); limit cholesterol to less than 300 mg/day; keep trans fat intake as low as possible; increase intake of fruits and vegetables; eat a variety of vegetables, especially dark-green and red and orange vegetables and beans and peas; consume at least half of all grains as whole grains (not refined); increase amount and variety of seafood; increase in-take of fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products (yogurt, milk, cheese, or fortified soy beverages); choose foods that provide more potassium, dietary fiber, calcium and vitamin D; use oils to replace solid fats where possible


measure of food energy; heat needed to raise 1g of water 1 degree Celsius

empty calorie

poor source of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) compared to calories

nutrient dense

has more micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) in relation to its energy value

dietary moderation (3 steps)

obtain enuf nutrients from food + avoiding excessive amounts of nutrients + balancing calorie intake with expenditure

physiological dose

amount of a nutrient within the range of safe intake that enables the body to function optimally


generally defined as 10 times the recommended amount of a vitamin or mineral

1 inch=? cm

1 inch=2.5 cm

1 ounce=? grams

1 ounce=28 grams

1 pound = ? grams

1 pound = 454 grams

2.2 pounds = ? kg

2.2 pounds=1 kilogram

1 kilocalorie = ? calories

1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories

1 Calorie = ? calories

1 Calorie = 1000 calories


state of health that occurs when the body is improperly nourish; may be from inadequate OR excessive amounts of nutrients


physiological need for food

chronic undernutrition

long-term energy and nutrient deficiency

calories in a gram of alcohol?


calories in a gram of carbohydrate?


calories in a gram of fat?


calories in a gram of protein?


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