half of a sphere; the Earth has four hemispheres: northern, southern, eastern, western
Imaginary, horizontal line around the middle of the Earth
the distance north or south of the Equator
the distance west or east of the Prime Meridian
angle of incidence
angle the sunlight hits the Earth (more intensity = warmer); sometimes called angle of insolation
Sun rays that strike the Earth in a straight line (most direct, intense rays = Equator)
Sun rays that strike the Earth at an angle (most indirect, least intense rays = north and south pole
transfer of thermal energy by electromagnetic waves through places with or without matter (examples: light bulb, campfire, fireplace, microwave, Sunlight traveling through space)
transfer of thermal energy by liquids or gases (examples by liquids: hotter at surface of a swimming pool, cup of soup, or boiling water on stove), (examples by gases: hot air balloon, lower floors being cooler than top floors in a building).
a continual cycle of heat rising, cooling, sinking, and replacing rising heat. (examples by liquids: gulf stream, El Nino/La Nina), (examples by gases: jet stream, sea breeze, land breeze)
transfer of thermal energy between things that are touching (examples of conduction: touching the handle of a hot metal pot, electrical circuit, ice in water), (examples of insulation: rubber surrounding electrical wires, insulation inside walls).