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World History Finals Review
Terms in this set (145)
Prime minister of Prussia, appointed by King Wilhelm I, eventually became chancellor.
Otto von Bismarck--WHO?
unified Germany through Bismarck's Wars of Unification and through "blood and iron" creating the German Empire;
Otto von Bismarck--WHAT?
late 1800s (1863-1871)
Otto von Bismarck--WHEN?
Prussia, German Empire
Otto von Bismarck--WHERE?
created the German Empire and the Second Reich; ended the Second French Empire; became Chancellor in 1871
Otto von Bismarck--WHY?
prime minister of Sardinia, appointed by Victor Emmanuel
Camilo di Cavour--WHO?
brokered the Plombiéres Agreement; created a war between Napoleon III and Austria to acquire Lombardi and Venetia in exchange for Nice and Savoy
Camilo di Cavour--WHAT?
mid 1800s (1858-1870)
Camilo di Cavour--WHEN?
Camilo di Cavour--WHERE?
unified the northern Italian states and made an agreement with Garibaldi to unify Italy
Camilo di Cavour--WHY?
France, Italy, Germany, Greeks
the belief that people's greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture
Italy, Germany, France, Greece
sparked revolutions and nationalist movements all across Europe--German and Italian Unification, Greek war for independence
wealthy Venezuelan creole; general, revolutionary
led the revolution in Venezuela against Spain; went to Ecuador and met with San Martin and led the combined forces to defeat the Spanish at the Battle of Ayacucho
Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Battle of Ayacucho
drove the Spanish out of Latin America, creating Gran Colombia; Bolivia is named in his honor
North America, Britain (countries with rivers and coal)
machines replace workers for mass production
mid 1700s (1750)
England, western Europe
created more jobs, increased urbanization, made working in the textile company more efficient and many new machines were invented that increased productivity but at the cost of lousy working condition
mathematical instrument maker
improved the steam engine, made it more practical
mid 1700s (1774)
Scotland, University of Glasgow
improved trade and transportation; increased water transportation; paved the way for road and railroad transportation
farmers moving from rural areas to urban areas; lower class
movement of poor farmers to the cities to find jobs in factories
Europe, Manchester, industrialized countries
led to poor living conditions and poor health; increased industrialization and created more jobs but caused pollution, disease, and overcrowding in cities
wrote "The Communist Manifesto"
developed the idea of communism (a form of complete socialism in which the means of production would be owned by the people and private property would cease to exit)
British, French, Germans
evacuation of British troops for occupied France; small armada of ships, including fishing boats, evacuate 300,000 troops
morale boost; kept British in war
Hitler and Stalin
Molotov Ribbentrop Pact--WHO?
non-aggression pact for next 10 years; divide Poland
Molotov Ribbentrop Pact--WHAT?
Molotov Ribbentrop Pact--WHEN?
Molotov Ribbentrop Pact--WHERE?
Germany avoids a two-front war
Molotov Ribbentrop Pact--WHY?
Germans and British; Winston Churchill
Battle of Britain--WHO?
air invasion of Britain to prep for land invasion
Battle of Britain--WHAT?
Battle of Britain--WHEN?
Battle of Britain--WHERE?
British RADAR aids in the defeat of Germany; calls of invasion of Britain
Battle of Britain--WHY?
Hitler, German tanks; Poland
"lightning war", air superiority, fast-moving surprise attack
makes trench warfare obsolete; enables Germany to take France and Poland very quickly
Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini
Cult of Personality--WHO?
propaganda and media, indoctrination
Cult of Personality--WHAT?
Cult of Personality--WHEN?
USSR, Germany, Italy
Cult of Personality--WHERE?
to consolidate and keep total powers; enables them to limit freedoms
Cult of Personality--WHY?
leader of the Bolshevik revolution; head of the soviet state, NEP; signed the Brest-Litovsk treaty ending WWI
early 1900s (1917-1924)
created first communist state; industrialized Russia
David Lloyd George, Woodrow Wilson, Clemenceau, Orlando
Paris Peace Conference--WHO?
meeting of Allied victors to discuss peace terms
Paris Peace Conference--WHAT?
Paris Peace Conference--WHEN?
Paris Peace Conference--WHERE?
Treaty of Versailles was harsh on Germany; Italy was upset; Japan was upset; created the League of Nations
Paris Peace Conference--WHY?
Battle of Verdun--WHO?
longest battle; lots of people died, only 4 miles gained by Germans; pyrrhic victory
Battle of Verdun--WHAT?
Battle of Verdun--WHEN?
France, near a river
Battle of Verdun--WHERE?
both sides lost a lot of men; not much gain; epitome of trench warfare
Battle of Verdun--WHY?
Arthur Zimmerman and Mexican foreign minister; British and Americans
propose to Mexico to join Central powers in exchange for lost territory from Mexican-American War; British intercepted the Telegram and passed it along to the US
Germany, Mexico, US
one of the major driving factors that made the US join
military plan to defeat France first then send troops back to defeat Russia
Germany, France, Russia
Battle of the Marne makes plan not work; Germany faces two front war
Monroe, Teddy Roosevelt
foreign policy that warned Europeans to stay out of the Americas (respect the sovereignty of newly Latin American countries)
departure from previous American foreign policy of isolationism by the Washington Address; US imperialism; away from isolationism
ended Shogunate and modernized Japan
modernized Japan; created competition with the west; started industrialization in Japan
Russia and Japan; Teddy Roosevelt
Japanese launched an attack on the Russian in Port Arthur; Manchuria natural resources; Straits of Tsushima
early 1900s (1905-1907)
Tsushima, Port Arthur, Manchuria, Portsmouth NH
destroyed entire Russian fleet; Japan became a world power; Roosevelt negotiated treaty between the two
open clash between the British and Chinese over the trading of opium by the British
resulted in the Treaty of Nanjing, which gave Britain Hong Kong; another treaty gave US and other foreign citizens extraterritorial rights; created resentment of foreigners among the Chinese
Otto von Bismarck
a conference between European nations to lay down rules for the division of Africa
late 1800s (1884-85)
created colonial rivalry with Africa and didn't allow Africans any say; only Liberia and Ethiopia remained free
Menelik II, Ethiopians, Italians
Battle of Adwa--WHO?
Ethiopians defeated Italian forces and remain independent
Battle of Adwa--WHAT?
Battle of Adwa--WHEN?
Battle of Adwa--WHERE?
first successful repulsion of European colonization in Africa
Battle of Adwa--WHY?
East India Company, Sepoys--soldiers serving under British command
the rebellion of sepoys against their British rulers
the British government took direct command of India; fueled racist attitude of sepoys toward the British
Fashoda was where the British and French Railway roughly intersect; created tension between Britain and France; the French sent an army of 120 men to Fashoda against the British; Mahdists started uprising in Sudan against British Colonial rule
Fashoda, on the Nile River, in the Sudan in Africa
was the climax of colonial rivalry; after Fashoda, colonial rivalries subsided
a theory based on Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and natural selection that was applied to human society (Europeans were superior to all other races/countries because those countries hadn't made the same scientific and technological progress as them)
motivated Europeans to colonize in order to spread the dominant race; created imperialism
professor at the University of Glasgow, Scotland
supporter of Laissez-fair; wrote The Wealth of Nations that fought for the idea of free economy and free market
developed the three natural laws of economics; formed capitalism. His ideas encouraged governments to not regulate industry, which allowed for the rapid growth of industrialization
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
23-page pamphlet outlining Marx and Engel's ideas on society and how the people should become communist
inspired revolutionaries such as Fidel Castro and Lenin
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