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avid (adj.)


cajole (v.t.)


rudimentary (adj.)

elementary, basic

enhance (v.t.)


nuance (n.)

slight variation in meaning, tone, appearance, etc.

loathe (v.t.)

hate/dislike greatly/abhor

reprimand (v.t.)

show sharp disapproval/scold severely

lackluster (adj.)


caustic (adj.)

sarcastic/biting/stinging/causing a burning or stinging sensation

wrest (v.t.)

take by force/seize

infamous (adj.)

having an exceedingly bad reputation/evil

jostle (v.i.&t.)

shove hard/vie for an advantage or a position/come into rough contact with while moving

dupe (n.)

person easily tricked

incipient (adj.)

just beginning to exist/in the very initial stage

inadvertent (adj.)

heedless/inattentive/due to an oversight or neglect

ominous (adj.)

threatening/menacing/serving as an (evil) omen

tremulous (adj.)


repudiate (v.t.)

reject the validity or authority of/disown (e.g., a child)

cessation (n.)


bristle (v.i.)

stiffen with fear or anger/have one's hair stand up

euphemism (n.)

a less offensive term/saying something in a less direct way (to make it sound less bad)

mundane (adj.)


incongruous (adj.)

incompatible/lacking in harmony/not in agreement/inconsistent

condolence (n.)

pity/expression of sympathy

stipulate (v.t.&i.)

specify conditions/require by contract/make an express demand or provision in an agreement

alacrity (n.)

briskness/lively action/eagerness/swiftness/speed/celerity

disdain (n.)


belligerent (adj.)

hostile/warlike/aggressive/inclined or eager to fight/combative

intimidate (v.t.)

overawe/daunt/fill with fear

feint (n.)

false attack/deceptive action to divert attention from one's real purpose

to beard the lion in his den

visit or oppose a person on his own grounds

crocodile tears

insincere tears (crocodiles were said to cry while eating their prey)

to carry the day

win the approval of the majority/win a majority of votes

skid row

disreputable part of town, inhabited be derelicts and people "on the skid"

to go up in smoke

come to no practical result,the intended result comes to naught

to thrown down the gauntlet

challenge someone

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