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Gen Bio Chapters 1-5
Terms in this set (40)
Nucleic acids are polymers made up of which of the following monomers?
Which type of interaction stabilizes the alpha helix and beta pleated sheet structures of proteins?
The label on a container of margarine lists "hydrogenated vegetable oil" as the major ingredient. What is the result of adding hydrogens to vegetable oil?
The hydrogenated vegetable oil stays solid at room temperature.
Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?
Dehydration reactions assemble polymers; hydrolysis reactions break polymers apart.
You disrupt all hydrogen bonds in a protein. What level of structure will be preserved?
What aspects of protein structure are stabilized or assisted by hydrogen bonds?
Which modifications of fatty acids will best keep triglycerides solid at warmer temperatures?
A. adding cis double bonds and trans double bonds to the fatty acids
adding hydrogens and trans double bonds to the fatty acids
are insoluble in water
The R-group, or side chain of the amino acid serine is -CH2-OH. The R-group, or side chain, of the amino acid leucine is -CH2-CH-(CH3)2. Where would you expect to find these amino acids in a globular protein in aqueous solution?
Leucine would be in the interior, and serine would be on the exterior of the globular protein.
Which of the following descriptions best fits the class of molecules known as nucleotides?
a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a sugar
Can the atomic mass of an element vary?
Yes. Adding or losing neutrons will change the atomic mass without forming a different element.
A controlled experiment ___________________.
includes at least two groups, one of which does not receive the experimental treatment
What results from an unequal sharing of electrons between atoms?
. a polar covalent bond
If an atom has a charge of +1, which of the following must be true?
It has one more proton that it does electrons.
An atom has four electrons in its valence shell. What types of covalent bonds is it capable of forming?
single, double, or triple bonds
Which statement is true of all atoms that are anions?
The atom has more electrons than protons.
A friend of yours calls to say that his car would not start this morning. He asks for your help. You say that you think the battery must be dead. If so, then jump-starting the car from a good battery will solve the problem. In doing so, you are __________________.
stating a hypothesis and using that hypothesis to make a testable prediction
How many electrons are involved in a double covalent bond?
Prokaryotes are classified as belonging to two different domains. What are the domains?
Bacteria and Archae
Water molecules are attracted to one another by _______________.
C. hydrogen bonds
A cellular structure found in plant but not animal cells is the ______________________.
Which organelle often takes up much of the volume of a plant cell?
In a bacterium, we will find DNA in ____________________.
Which type of organelle or structure is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steroids?
All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell except ___________________.
an endoplasmic reticulum
What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein that will be secreted by a cell?
nucleus to ER to Golgi apparatus
Which of the following pairs is correctly matched?
nucleolus - site of ribosomal subunit synthesis
Motor proteins provide for molecular motion in cells by interacting with what types of cellular structures?
Which of the following is NOT true? Both chloroplasts and mitochondria _________________.
are part of the endomembrane system
Hydrolytic enzymes must be segregated and packaged to prevent general destruction of cellular components. Which of the following organelles contains these hydrolytic enzymes in animal cells?
What kinds of molecules pass through a cell membrane most easily?
small and hydrophobic
Which of the following is true of osmosis?
In osmosis, water moves across a membrane from areas of lower solute concentration to areas of higher solute concentration.
Which of these are NOT embedded in the hydrophobic portion of the lipid bilayer at all?
The force driving simple diffusion is ______________, while the energy source for active transport is ____________.
the concentration gradient; ATP
Which of the following membrane activities requires energy from ATP?
movement of sodium ions from a lower concentration in a mammalian cell to a higher concentration in the extracellular fluid
Which of the following is a reasonable explanation for why unsaturated fatty acids help keep a membrane fluid at lower temperatures?
The double bonds form kinks in the fatty acid tails, preventing adjacent lipids from packing tightly.
A bacterium engulfed by a white blood cell will be digested by enzymes contained in ______________.
Which of the following statements correctly describes the normal tonicity conditions for typical plant and animal cells? The animal cell is in _______________.
an isotonic solution, and the plant cell is in a hypotonic solution
The difference between pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis is that ________________.
pinocytosis is nonselective in the molecules it brings into the cell, whereas receptor-mediated endocytosis offers more selectivity
is a passive process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
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