S Psych Final
Terms in this set (74)
Sentencing disparity refers to the
tendency for different judges to apply different sentences for the same offense.
With respect to social influence processes in interrogations, internalization refers to the process in which
innocent suspects come to believe that they have committed the crimes for which they are being interrogated
Death qualification refers to
a jury selection procedure that permits judges to exclude from capital cases all prospective jurors who say they would refuse to vote for the death penalty under any circumstance.
Police interrogators often use minimizing techniques to secure confessions. One such tactic is to
blame the victim of the crime
Maxwell witnesses a man assault a woman with a silver hammer. A few days later, he is called to the police station to identify the culprit from a lineup. Maxwell is most likely to be accurate if
he observes the suspects and foils one at a time rather than together in a single lineup
Shaquille has been selected to be the foreperson of his jury. It is likely that Shaquille
will spend more time than any other juror discussing procedural items
Kassin, Meisner, and Norwick (2005) videotaped male inmates confessing to crimes that they did and did not commit and showed these videos to college students and police officers, asking them to judge which of the two confessions was true for ten inmates. They found that
college students and police officers were equally inaccurate, but police officers were more confident.
The presence of a weapon reduces eyewitness accuracy because
witnesses tend to focus attention on the weapon to the exclusion of other cues
The "leniency bias" refers to
the tendency for jury deliberation to tilt toward acquittal.
can be fairly accurate when the suspect is naive and the examiner is competent.
A police officer testifies that the defendant in a murder trial confessed to the crime. Under cross-examination, the officer reveals details of the interrogation that suggest it is likely that the defendant was coerced into confessing. How are jurors likely to react to the confession evidence?
Jurors will believe that they have discounted the confession, but will vote to convict anyway
Loftus and Palmer (1974) manipulated the wording of questions posed to participants who witness a filmed traffic accident. Their findings suggest that
the wording affected the participants' memory for the accident.
The Stanford University prison simulation teaches us that
even normal people can be dehumanized by institutional roles and practices
After a 36-hour interrogation, Liz just wanted to make it end so she confessed to the kidnapping even though she knew she had not committed the crime. Liz's confession would be labeled as
Eighteen-year-old André has been accused of statutory rape because he had sex with his seventeen-year-old girlfriend, who is considered a minor. When the case goes to trial, the prosecution presents evidence confirming that André broke the law; yet the jurors vote not guilty because they feel the law is outdated. The jury's action illustrates
Guilty suspects can fool a polygraph test if they
artificially inflate their arousal to control questions by tensing their muscles
Franklin, an African-American male, is on trial for attempted murder. The study conducted by Sommers (2006) regarding jury racial composition suggests which of the following jurors would be most likely to vote to convict Franklin?
jerry, a Caucasian male on an all-Caucasian jury
Prida has witnessed a violent crime involving a knife. Research suggests that he will be less likely to identify the culprit than in a situation where no knife was present because Prida will
spend more time looking at the knife.
Police interrogations are often conducted in small, bare, soundproof rooms so that
suspects feel socially isolated and powerless
The pretrial interview of prospective jurors conducted by the judge and lawyers is called
In what way is pre-trial publicity dangerous?
It creates a first impression of guilt.
Which of the following best describes the conclusions reached by Kassin and Kiechel (1996) concerning false confessions?
Internalized false confessions are most likely to occur when false evidence of guilt is presented
One criticism of scientific jury selection is that it
can only be afforded by the wealthiest of defendants and plaintiffs
Lawyers may dismiss prospective jurors without having to justify their dismissal by using
All of the following are examples of microstressors except
Jack learns that hostility and anger are factors in the development of high blood pressure, so he now tries to suppress his anger. How will this behavior likely affect his body over time?
his blood pressure will probably increase
Regarding confession, research reveals that it is
helpful to open up so long as the source you confess to is validating
Self-awareness theory suggests that
self-focus brings out our personal shortcomings
is the application of psychology to the promotion of physical health
Based on research concerning the link between stress and illness, which of the following people is most likely to actually contract a cold if exposed to a cold virus?
Samantha, who has been unemployed for two months
Which of the following best illustrates the adaptation-level theory of happiness?
People who lose a limb are just as happy with their lives 10 years later as people who do not have accidents
is an up-front effort to modify the onset of a stressful event
Monty studies hard for math, but never seems to "get it." Week after week, he fails his math tests. By the end of the year, Monty does not even try to study for math. Monty is demonstrating
By definition, stress is
a state of arousal
Research on thought suppression shows that
suppressing the display of emotion is physiologically taxing.
Walter and Helen are both recently divorced and trying to cope with the stress of their failed relationships. Compared to Walter, Helen is more likely to cope by
ruminating about her negative feelings
If Maurice has a depressive explanatory style, then he is likely to attribute his failures to
stable, global, and internal factors
An emerging subfield that examines the link between the mind and heart is known as
Marsha believes that her outcomes are controlled by her actions. She also perceives change as normal and life as meaningful. Marsha has the attribute of
Many social psychologists refer to the concept of happiness using the phrase
According to Seligman (1975), depression results primarily from
In interviews with hospital patients, Holmes and Rahe (1967) found that illness was often preceded by either a positive or negative major life event. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that
stress is caused by change
The process by which we make judgments about the demands of potentially stressful events is called
In their study of procrastination, Tice and Baumeister (1997) found that, compared to non-procrastinators, procrastinators tended to report
lower levels of stress early in the semester and higher levels late in the semester
Sophia is anxious about her first day in school. Her mother assures her that everything is fine, walks her to the classroom door, and waits until she seems comfortable in her new surroundings. Sophia's mother has provided
Research on marriage and stress suggests that
the relationship between the two depends on the level of marital conflict
Katarina is on a plane that has been hijacked. Assuming she will be in this situation for an extended period of time, which of the following coping strategies to alleviate her stress would probably be least effective?
helping other passengers
Following a terrible car accident, Ruby is anxious, socially withdrawn, has difficulty sleeping, and experiences flashbacks of the crash. Ruby is most likely suffering from
Bettina is extremely Type A. Research suggests that she will tend to
be more aggressive than other people when provoked.
When his wife tells him that he cannot go out bowling with the guys, Homer gets mad and throttles his son, Bart. Homer's behavior is an example of
Which of the following is most consistent with evolutionary explanations of aggression
Male-to-female violence is predominantly triggered by sexual jealousy
When exposed to situational cues, such as the presence of a gun, people tend to
have automatic cognitions regarding aggression
Mario and Luigi are trying to decide whether to spank their child when she does something undesirable. Research suggests that this type of punishment
will be most effective if she perceives her parents to be warm and supportive
Reifman et al. (1991) found that as temperatures rise, major league baseball pitchers are more likely to hit batters with a pitch. This finding is consistent with
the revised frustration-aggression hypothesis
Research on violent media suggests compared to watching a violent video game, actually playing a violent game
has more on an impact of subsequent aggressive behavior in the real world
Finnegan notices his wife talking to another man and flies into a jealous rage. According to the evolutionary perspective, Finnegan's behavior is designed to
increase his confidence in the paternity of his offspring.
Twin research indicates that ______ is more heritable than _____.
physical aggression; relational aggression
Consider a mother who slaps her son whenever he engages in aggression. If negative reinforcement is responsible for her behavior, what likely happens after she slaps him?
He behaves less aggressively
Which of the following best illustrates aggression?
Ginger kicks MaryAnn in the shins to keep her from eating the last coconut pie
The defining characteristic of aggression is that the aggressor
intends to injure another living being
Daniel fits a rapist's profile. This means that he probably exhibits _______ in response to violent pornography and tends to have _______ attitudes toward violence against women
increased arousal; positive
Research on the link between media violence and aggression has demonstrated that
all forms of media violence appear to increase aggressive behavior
Which of the following concerning a culture of honor is true?
It is a product of socialization that can influence the tendency to aggress.
The concept of catharsis has been undermined by findings suggesting that engaging in or witnessing aggression often
slowly weakens restraints against aggression
A negative, antagonistic attitude toward another person or group is called
On his way back from work, Orin nearly collided head-on with another car. After swerving out of the way at the last minute, Orin could feel his heart racing and his hands shaking. A few minutes later he arrived home and, just as he walked in, received a phone call from a salesperson. Orin then became verbally abusive toward the salesperson. This outcome is most consistent with the concept of
The relatively greater violence rates in the southern United States has been attributed to
the manner in which residents of the South respond to status threats
Aleta gets extremely drunk. Given the research on alcohol and aggression, which of the following is unlikely to happen?
She will be more aggressive if she tends to be high in aggressiveness than if she tends to be generally non-aggressive.
Aggressive models teach aggressive behavior by all of the following except
increasing the frustration experienced by observers.
Jay has just been exposed to highly arousing violent pornography, whereas Dave has just been exposed to equally arousing but nonviolent pornography. The research on pornography and aggression suggests that, compared to Dave, Jay should subsequently be
more aggressive toward women but no different in his level of aggression toward men
Bandura's (1961) study of aggressive behavior in children
demonstrated that children will follow an adult model's lead in terms of degree and nature of aggression demonstrated
According to FBI statistics, who of the following is least likely to be the victim of a homicide?
A white woman
When Paulie accidentally bumps into Christopher causing Christopher to spill his coffee, Christopher assumes that Paulie's behavior was deliberately intended to make him spill his coffee. He responds by yelling obscenities at Paulie. Christopher could be described as
having a hostile attribution bias
Carmen, an 8-year-old girl, is angry with her brother, so she tells their mother that he was playing video games when he was supposed to be doing his homework; she then tells all his friends that he is afraid of the dark. Carmen's behavior illustrates _____________________ aggression.