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ISA 235 Final Strouble
Terms in this set (225)
MIS: Why is Introduction to MIS the most important class in the business school?
1. It will give you the background you need to assess, evaluate, and apply emerging information systems technology to business.
2. It can give you the ultimate in job security— marketable skills— by helping you learn abstraction, systems thinking, collaboration, and experimentation.
3. It introduces you to careers that will have strong job growth.
MIS: What are cost-effective business applications of Facebook and Twitter or whatever will soon appear?
Staying ahead of the crowd by adopting new technologies
MIS: How can Intro to MIS help you learn nonroutine skills?
By analyzing and creating charts based on business processes and developing an understanding of systems both individually and in a group.
IS: What is an information system?
A group of components that interact to produce information.
MIS: What is MIS?
MIS is the management and use of information systems that help businesses achieve their strategies.
MIS: Management and use of information systems
Develop, maintain, and adapt the system to make use easier and more productive
Asking yourself questions about when to use a certain information system and the benefits/downfalls of that system at any point.
IS: Why is the difference between information technology and information systems important to you?
The difference is important because with information everywhere these days and technologies to help spread and understand it, information systems are useful in nearly every aspect of life whether it be school or social relationships or jobs or even entertainment.
IS: Five Component Framework/ IS components
IS: What is your role in IS security?
Making sure I protect and use the IS data in the right manner
don't write it down or share it
Process quality can be measured in two dimensions: process effectiveness and process efficiency. An effective business process is one that enables the organization to accomplish its strategy.
Using information systems to improve process quality.
Information: What Is Information?
Knowledge derived from data, where data is defined as recorded facts or figures
Data presented in a meaningful context
Processed data, or data processed by summing, ordering, averaging, grouping, comparing, or other similar operations
A difference that makes a difference
Information: Where is information?
In our heads, we must conceive it ourselves after observing data.
Information: What Data Characteristics Are Necessary for Quality Information?
Accurate - Correct and complete, crucial for management, can cross-check information to ensure accuracy
Timely - Produced in time for intended use
Relevant - To context and subject
Just sufficient - For purpose it is generated, avoids too much or extraneous information
Worth its cost - Relationship between cost and value; information systems cost money to develop, maintain, and use; must be worth that cost
BPM: Why do Business Processes need Management?
Processes are dynamic and often need to be changed
Improve process quality
Change in technology
Change in business fundamentals
Changes in Business Fundamentals
Market (e.g., new customer category, change in customer characteristics)
Company organization (e.g., merger, acquisition)
BPM:business process management ( BPM)
a cyclical process for systematically creating, assessing, and altering business processes.
Cycle begins by creating models of business processes.
Usually teams build an as-is model that documents the current situation.
IS:How does organizational strategy determine information systems requirements?
organizations examine the structure of their industry and, from that, develop a competitive strategy. That strategy determines value chains, which, in turn, determine business processes
Forces: What five forces determine industry structure?
1.Competition from vendors of substitutes
2.Competition from new competitors
3.Competition from existing rivals
-Bargaining Power Forces
4.Bargaining power of suppliers
5.Bargaining power of customers
Activities: Primary activities
business functions that reate directly to the production of the organization's products or services.
Outbound Logistics Sales
Marketing Customer Service
Activities: Support activities
business functions that assist and facilitate the primary activities.
Manage Supplier Relationships ( Procurement)
Investigate New Designs ( Technology)
Hire & Support Employees ( Human Resources)
Manage Company Resources ( Firm Infrastructure
interactions across value activities.
uses sales forecasts to plan production; it then uses the production plan to determine raw material needs and then uses the material needs to schedule purchases. The end result is just- in- time inventory, which reduces inventory sizes and costs.
determine:How does competitive strategy determine value chain structure?
A business with a differentiation strategy will add cost to an activity only as long as the activity has a positive margin-(The difference between the value that an activity generates and the cost of the activity)
determine: How do value chains determine business processes and information systems?
business processes implement value chains or portions of value chains. Thus, each value chain is supported by one or more business processes.
compete: switching costs
Organizations can lock in customers by making it difficult or expensive for customers to switch to another product.
compete:How does an actual company use IS to create competitive advantages?
By implementing competitive advantages using information systems to make all aspects of the business process work efficiently and easily for every person in the process
CPU:What do business professionals need to know about computer hardware?
hardware consists of electronic components and related gadgetry that input, process, output, and store data according to instructions ¬encoded in computer programs or software.
desktops, laptops, phones, iPads and other slates, Xbox and other games, etc.
CPU:What is the difference between a client and a server?
Server-side refers to operations that are performed by the server in a client-server relationship in computer networking. Typically, a server is a software program, such as a web server, that runs on a remote server, reachable from a user's local computer or workstation.
Client-side refers to operations that are performed by the client in a client-server relationship in a computer network. Typically, a client is a computer application, such as a web browser, that runs on a user's local computer or workstation and connects to a server as necessary.
CPU: What do business professionals need to know about operating systems software??
OPERATING SYSTEM/CLIENT: Programs that control the client computer's resources
OPERATING SYSTEM/SERVER: Programs that control the server computer's resources
APPLICATION PROGRAMS/CLIENT: Applications that are processed on client computers
APPLICATION PROGRAMS/SERVER: Applications that are processed on server computers
the process by which one computer hosts the appearance of many computers.
CPU: Virtualization types
1) PC virtualization: able to use the same software to run both iOS and Windows 8, for example
2) Server virtualization: able to log on to two computers and have the same server, Follett for example
3) Desktop virtualization: able to acess the same server and desktop operating systems from any device
applications software Categories:
Horizontal- market: provides capabilities common across all organizations and industries. Examples: Word, Excell.
Vertical- market: serves the needs of a specific industry. can be altered or customized. Example: Kathari's ortho application software on the computers in this office.
One- of- a- kind: developed for a specific, unique need. Examples: IRS system, specific mobile apps like Vangaurds.
Applications software subcategories:
Applications that process code on both the client and the server are called client-server applications.
Thick-client application: is an application program that must be preinstalled on the client. Example: Microsoft office
Thin-client application: is one that runs within a browser and does not need to be preinstalled. Example: Microsoft word
which is software that runs on top of the operating system and performs particular services and functions.
application software: How do organizations acquire application software?
By buying off-the-shelf software, off-the-shelf with alterations software, or tailor-made. Tailor-made software is called custom- developed software.
application software: firmware
Firmware is computer software that is installed into devices such as printers, print servers, and various types of communication devices. (becomes a part of computers memory)
DBMS: open source
Open source succeeds because of collaboration. A programmer examines the source code(code written and understood by users) and identifies a need or project that seems interesting. He or she then creates a new feature, redesigns or reprograms an existing feature, or fixes a known problem. That code is then sent to others in the open source project who then evaluate the quality and merits of the work and add it to the product, if appropriate.
DBMS: open source viable?
Whether open source works for a particular situation depends on the requirements and constraints of that situation and the users that are editing and creating the software.
DBMS: Relationships among rows
Values in one table relate rows of that table to rows in a second table. Example: Primary key and foreign key in SQL
Metadata are data that describe data. Example: SQL page with "Field Name", "Data Type", and "Description"
DBMS: What is a database management system (DBMS)?
a program used to create, process, and ad-minister a database. As with operating systems, almost no organization develops its own DBMS. Example: SQL
DBMS: How do database applications make databases more useful?
A database application is a collection of forms, reports, queries, and application programs that process a database.
Use a query to find or operate on the data in your tables. With a query, you can display the records that match certain criteria (e.g. all the members called "Barry"), sort the data as you please (e.g. by First name), and even combine data from different tables.
These are screens for displaying data from and inputting data into your tables. The basic form has an appearance similar to an index card: it shows only one record at a time, with a different field on each line.
Reports are for output. Anything you plan to print deserves a report, whether it is a list of names and addresses, a financial summary for a period, or a set of mailing labels.
Internet: Connecting to the Internet
actually connecting to an Internet service provider (ISP) which:
Provides you with a legitimate Internet address.
Serves as your gateway to the Internet. (The ISP re-ceives the communications from your computer and passes them on to the Internet, and it receives communications from the Internet and passes them on to you.)
They collect money from their customers and pay access fees and other charges on your behalf.
Internet: Why is the cloud the future for most organizations?
Easy to control, access, limit storage of data. Can hold massive amounts. Available anywhere from any device
Small capital requirements
Superior flexibility and adaptability to growing or fluctuating demand
Known cost structure
Possibly best-of-breed security/disaster preparedness
Industry-wide economies of scale, hence cheaper
Control of data location
In-depth visibility of security and disaster preparedness
Dependency on vendor
Loss of control over data location
Little visibility into true security and disaster preparedness capabilities.
Significant capital required
Significant cant development effort
Annual maintenance costs
Ongoing support costs
Staff and train personnel
Increased management requirements
Difficult to accommodate fluctuating demand
mobile native application (Thick)
is a thick-client application that is designed to work with a particular operating system, and sometimes even designed to work only with a particular mobile device that runs that operating system.
mobile: mobile browser based mobile apps:
is a thin client application that provides a consistent environment for the application; the details of operating systems and hardware are handled by the browser's code and hidden from the application.
mobile: Developing native mobile applications
Developed using serious, heavy-duty, professional programming languages. very complex to create but not as complex to use.
very secure. only run on the operating system for which they are programmed.
many workers who specialize in different skills.
mobile: Developing thin-client mobile applications
Run inside a browser such as Firefox or Chrome.
very easy to use and create. l
imited by the capabilities of the browser.
are unable to support very specialized and complex applications.
run on any operating system and mobile device. doesn't take many workers.
mobile: Advantages of employee use of mobile systems at work. Advantages:
Greater employee satisfaction,
Reduced need for training,
Reduced support costs.
mobile: Disadvantages employee use of mobile systems at work.:
Data loss or damage,
Loss of control,
Risk of infection,
Greater support costs.
IS department functions
Plan the use of IS to accomplish organizational goals and strategy.
Manage outsourcing relationships.
Protect information assets.
Develop, operate, and maintain the organization's computing infrastructure.
Develop, operate, and maintain applications.
IS: Align information systems with organizational strategy
for maximum and best results of the IS, developers must make sure information systems are aligned with the organization's competitive strategy.
is the representative for IS and IT issues within the executive staff. The CIO provides the IS perspective during discussions of problem solutions, proposals, and new initiatives. Example: when considering a merger, it is important that the company consider integration of information systems in the merged entities.
CIO must ensure that priorities consistent with the overall organizational strategy are developed and then communicated to the IS department. At the same time, the CIO must also ensure that the department evaluates proposals and projects for using new technology in light of those communicated priorities.
is a group of senior managers from the major business functions that works with the CIO to set the IS priorities and decide among major IS projects and alternatives.
CIO: steering committee meetings
are an important communication function between IS and the users.
IS department sets up the steering committee's schedule and agenda and conducts the meetings. Meetings allow for discussion of potential IS initiatives and provide a forum for users to express their needs, frustrations, and other issues with the IS department.
Outsourcing information systems
Avoid management problems.
Free management time.
Obtain part-time services.
Gain economies of scale.
Cap financial exposure.
Reduce implementation risk.
Hardware: IaaS cloud hosting
Software: Licensed software/Outsourced
People: Business function
Loss of control:
Vendor in driver's seat.
Potential loss of intellectual capital.
Product fixes, enhancements in wrong priority.
Vendor management, direction, or identity changes.
CIO superfluous (unnecessary)?
Benefits outweighed by long-term costs:
High unit cost, forever.
Paying for someone else's mismanagement.
In time, outsource vendor is de facto sole source.
May not get what you pay for but don't know it.
No easy exit:
Critical knowledge in minds of vendors, not employees.
Expensive and risky to change vendors.
outsourcing: Your user rights.
Computer hardware and programs that allow you to perform your job proficiently
Reliable network and Internet connections
A secure computing environment
Protection from viruses, worms, and other threats
Contribute to requirements for new system features and functions
Reliable systems development and maintenance
Prompt attention to problems, concerns, and complaints
Properly prioritized problem fixes and resolutions
outsourcing: Your user responsibilities.
Learn basic computer skills
Learn standard techniques and procedures for the applications you use
Follow security and backup procedures
Protect your password(s)
Use computers and mobile devices according to your employer's computer use policy
Make no unauthorized hardware modifications
Install only authorized programs
Apply software patches and fixes when directed to do so
Respond completely to requests for requirements for new system features and functions
Avoid reporting trivial problems
IS security threat/loss
A threat is a person or organization that seeks to obtain or alter data or other assets illegally, without the owner's permission and often without the owner's knowledge.
A vulnerability is an opportunity for threats to gain access to individual or organizational assets.
A safeguard is some measure that individuals or organizations take to block the threat from obtaining the asset.(some threats achieve their goal despite safeguards).
A target is the asset that is desired by the threat.
IS security threat/loss sources
Human error, Computer crime, Natural disasters
IS security loss types
Unauthorized data disclosure: a threat obtains data that is supposed to be protected
Incorrect data modification: can occur through human error when employees follow procedures incorrectly or when procedures have been designed incorrectly.
Faulty service: problems that result because of incorrect system operation.
Denial of service: Caused by human error in following procedures or a lack of procedures. results in a failure of the system. Examples: running a computationally intensive app that shuts down a Web server or corporate gateway router. Hackers sending millions of fake requests to occupy a server.
Loss of infrastructure: stolen equipment, broken equipment from human error or terrorism, broken equipment from a natural disaster
IS security goal
to find an appropriate trade- off between the risk of loss and the cost of implementing safeguards.
IS security threats: business
address two critical security functions: security policy and risk management. response
IS security threats: safeguards
Technical safeguards involve the hardware and software components of an information system.
Can protect against security threats by implementing an Identification and authentication process, Encrypting data, Setting up Firewalls, Using Malware protection, and designing secure apps.
IS security threats: Technical safeguards
Identification and authentication
Identification: user enters name to identify themselves
Authentication: user enters password to authenticate themselves.
Single sign-on for multiple systems
Today's operating systems have the capability to allow the user to be identified and authenticated after only the initial sign-in and does not require multiple sign-in processes.
Encryption is the process of transforming clear text into coded, unintelligible text for secure storage or communication.
A computing device that prevents unauthorized network access.
Can be a special-purpose computer or a program on a general-purpose computer or on a router.
Malware is viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spyware, and adware.
IS security threats: Malware types
A virus is a computer program that replicates itself. The program code that causes unwanted or harmful activity is called the payload.
Trojan horses are viruses that masquerade as useful programs or files.
A worm is a virus that propagates using the Internet or other computer network.
Spyware programs are installed on the user's computer without the user's knowledge or permission.
Adware is similar to spyware but it watches user activity and produce pop-up ads.
IS security threats: data safeguards
Data safeguards protect databases and other organizational data.
Data administration refers to an organization-wide function that is in charge of developing data policies and enforcing data standards.
Database administration refers to a function that pertains to a particular database.
Both data and database administration establish safeguards such as: Define data policies, Data rights and responsibilities, Rights enforced by user accounts authenticated by passwords, Data encryption, Backup and recovery procedures, Physical security.
IS security threats: Human safeguards
Human safeguards involve the people and procedure components of information systems. In general, human safeguards result when authorized users follow appropriate procedures for system use and recovery.
IS security threats: Human safeguards for employees
Human safeguards for employees
Position definitions: should provide a separation of duties and authorities.
Hiring and screening: interview potential employees.
Dissemination and Enforcement: make employees aware of their security policies, procedures, and responsibilities.
Termination: discontinue access to company records, infrastructure, etc and remove passwords and accounts and encryption keys from employee
another important human safeguard. Consists of account management, password management, and help desk policies regarding sensitive information that could cause a security issue.
IS security threats: Systems procedures
Procedures of each type should exist for each information system. The definition and use of standardized procedures reduces the likelihood of computer crime and other malicious activity by insiders. It also ensures that the system's security policy is enforced.
Number of transistors per square inch on an integrated chip doubles every 18 months
-Speed of computer chip increases in proportion to density of transistors
-Price/performance ratio falls dramatically
Moore's law allows _______ to exist
-Youtube, iPhone, Facebook, Second Life, Pandora, Twitter
Jobs: How Can I Attain Job Security?
Knowledge and skills are your job security
Ability to cope with rapid technological change
Develop non-routine cognitive skills and ability
Jobs: Why is there no such thing as Job Security?
There is no job security, no secure investments and no security in Social Security. Your only job security is a marketable skill and courage to use it.
Rapid technological change and increased international competition spotlight non-routine cognitive skills and the ability to adapt to changing technology and shifting demand
Students need to develop strong non-routine cognitive skills and the ability to cope with rapid technological change.
4 Important non-routine Skills (Reich's skills)
Abstract Reasoning (Ability to undergo the process of constructing a model or representation)
Systems Thinking (Ability to model system components, connect inputs and outputs among components to reflect structure and dynamics of system observed)
Collaboration (Activity of two or more people working together to achieve a common goal, result, or work product)
Ability to experiment (Make reasoned analysis of an opportunity; developing and evaluating possible solutions)
Information Technologies (IT)
Passwords: Rules for Strong Passwords
Ten or more characters
Do not include: username, real name, or company name
Do not use a complete diction word in any language
Contains both upper- and lowercase letters, numbers, and special characters
Network of activities for accomplishing a business function. Such as: buying & managing inventory, making sales to customers, paying bills, collecting revenue, and hundreds of other business functions.
BPM: Business Model and Notation (BPMN)
a graphical representation for specifying business processes in a business process model.
BPM: swimlane format
which is a graphical arrangement in which all of the activities for a given role are shown in a single vertical or horizontal lane.
Rectangle with plus=sub process
Dashed line= data flow
Solid line=sequence flow
BPM: Components of a Business Process
Activities- Transform resources and information of one type into another type
Decisions- A question that can be answered Yes or No
Roles- Set of procedures
Resources- People, facilities, or computer programs assigned to roles
Repository- Collection of business records
BPM: How Can Information Systems Improve Process Quality?
Dimension of Process Quality
(Business process enables organization to accomplish its strategy.)
Efficiency (Ratio of benefits to costs, Costs - time and infrastructure)
IS: Most Important Part of Any Information System
Quality of your thinking, your ability to conceive information from data, determined by your cognitive skills
Information is value you add to information systems.
BPM: 4 Stages of Business Process Management
1.Create a model (Usually teams build an as- is model that documents the current situation)
2.Create Process Components
4. Assess Results
BPM: COBIT ( Control Objectives for Information and related Technology)
a set of standard practices that are often used in the assessment stage of the BPM cycle.
IS: Information system (IS)
is the study of complementary networks of hardware and software (see information technology) that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and distribute data
BPM VS. IS:Business Processes vs Information Systems
Business processes and information systems are not the same thing. Information systems have the five components as you know by now. Business processes have actors, roles, activities, etc. They overlap, but their purpose and components are different.
BPM VS. IS: Which Comes First, Business Processes or Information Systems?
In theory, it is better to start with business processes. business processes are closer to the organization's competitive strategy and other goals and objectives. Starting with processes and working toward systems is more likely to result in processes and systems that are aligned with the organization's strategy and direction.
In practice, however, the answer is not clear. Organizations today take both approaches. Sometimes the same organization takes one approach with one set of processes and systems and a second approach with a different set.
applications: Off-the-shelf software
Start with business processes and select application that works for those processes, application includes features and functions needed by future business processes.
Better to begin with processes, if likely to use licensed application.
IS: A role
is a subset of the activities in a business process that is performed by an actor
a person, group, department, or organization.
a collection of data that is stored within the business process. Repositories can be computer databases, or they can be collections of files in the cloud ( think on the Internet for now), or they can be printed records stored in a file cabinet or a shoebox.
Porter's five forces
1.Competition from vendors of substitutes
2.Competition from new competitors
3.Competition from existing rivals
Bargaining Power Forces:
4. Bargaining power of suppliers
5. Bargaining power of customers
Porter's five forces model
to help organizations determine the potential profitability of an industry. Over the years, this model has been applied for another purpose: As a way of understanding organizations' competitive environments.
Porter's four competitive strategies
Industry-wide Cost: Lowest cost across the industry
Industry-wide Differentiation: Better product/service across the industry
Focus Cost: Lowest cost within an industry segment
Focus Differentiation: Better product/service within an industry segment
A value chain
is a network of value- creating activities. That generic chain consists of five primary activities and four support activities. Value chain analysis is most easily understood in the context of manufacturing.
Competitive Advantage Product Implementations
1. Create a new product or service
2. Enhance products or services
3. Differentiate products or services
Competitive Advantage Process Implementations
4. Lock in customers and buyers
5. Lock in suppliers
6. Raise barriers to market entry
7. Establish alliances
8. Reduce costs
Competitive advantage: How Do Information Systems Provide Competitive Advantages?
Organizations gain a competitive advantage by creating new products or services, by enhancing existing products or services, and by differentiating their products and services from those of their competitors.
Lock in customers by creating high switching costs.
Make it easy for suppliers to connect to and work with your organization.
Alliances establish standards, promote product awareness and needs, develop market size, reduce purchasing costs, and provide other benefits.
Create better business processes to reduce costs.
An information system can be part of a product or can provide support for a product or service.
consists of electronic components and related gadgetry that input, process, output, and store data according to instructions encoded in computer programs or software.
CPU:input hardware devices
are the keyboard, mouse, document scanners, and bar- code ( Universal Product Code) scanners like those used in grocery stores. Microphones and cameras are also input devices; with tablet PCs, human handwriting can be input as well.
CPU:central processing unit ( CPU)
Processing device, which is sometimes called " the brain" of the computer. vary in speed, function, and cost.
reads data and instructions from memory, and it stores results of computations in main memory.
consists of video displays, printers, audio speakers, overhead projectors, and other special- purpose devices, such as large flatbed plotters.
saves data and programs.
by far the most common stor-age device, although optical disks such as CDs and DVDs also are popular. Thumb drives are small, portable magnetic storage devices that can be used to back up data and to transfer it from one computer to another. In large corporate data centers, data is sometimes stored on magnetic tape.
bit: binary digits, called bits.
A bit is either a zero or a one. Bits are used for computer data because they are easy to represent physically. A switch can be either closed or open. A computer can be designed so that an open switch rep-resents zero and a closed switch represents one.
CPU:How does a CPU Work?
The CPU is the major actor. To run a program or process data, the computer first transfers the program or data from disk to main memory. Then, to execute an instruction, it moves the instruction from main memory into the CPU via the data channel or bus. The CPU has a small amount of very fast memory called a cache. The CPU keeps frequently used instructions in the cache. Having a large cache makes the computer faster, but the cache is expensive.
CPU: operating system ( OS)
a program that controls the computer's resources. For example, no personal computer has enough memory to hold all of the code in Microsoft Word, Excel, and Access. Consequently, the CPU loads programs into memory in chunks.
CPU: memory swapping.
If there is not enough memory, the CPU will remove something, perhaps the block of memory labeled More Excel, and then it will place the just- requested program or data into the vacated space
CPU: The cache and main memory are volatile
meaning their contents are lost when power is off.
CPU: Magnetic and optical disks are nonvolatile
meaning their contents sur-vive when power is off. If you suddenly lose power, the contents of unsaved memory— say, doc-uments that have been altered— will be lost.
Database: What Is the Purpose of a Database?
The purpose of a database is to help people keep track of things. lists that involve data with multiple themes require a database.
In databases, bytes are grouped into columns, such as Student Number and Student Name. Columns are also called fields. Columns or fields, in turn, are grouped into rows, which are also called records.
is a self- describing collection of integrated records as well as a collection of tables plus relationships among the rows in those tables, plus special data, called metadata, that describes the structure of the database.
database: Primary Key
is a column or group of columns that identifies a unique row in a table.
databases that carry their data in the form of tables and that represent relationships using foreign keys
database: what does self- describing mean?
It means that a database contains, within itself, a description of its contents. Think of a library. A library is a a library.A library is a self- describing collection of books and other materials. It is self describing because the library contains a catalog that describes the library's contents.
DBMS: Database Management System ( DBMS)
a program used to create, process, and administer a database. As with operating systems, almost no organization develops its own DBMS. Instead, companies license DBMS products from vendors such as IBM, Microsoft, Oracle, and others.
DBMS: Popular DBMS products are
DB2 from IBM, Access and SQL Server from Microsoft, and Oracle Database from the Oracle Corporation and MYSQL
an open source DBMS product that is license- free for most applications.
DBMS provides applications for four processing operations:
or delete data.
DBMS: Structured Query Language ( SQL)
is an international standard language for process-ing a database. All five of the DBMS products mentioned earlier accept and process SQL
DBMS: Database administration
involves a wide variety of activities. For example, the DBMS can be used to set up a security system involving user accounts, passwords, permissions, and limits for processing the database. Also include backing up database data, adding structures to improve the performance of database applications, removing data that are no longer wanted or needed, and similar tasks.
DBMS: database application
a collection of forms, reports, queries, and application programs that process a database. A database that process a database. A database may have one or more applications, and each application may have one or more users.
DBMS: Application Programs
process logic that is specific to a given business need.
enables database processing over the Internet. For this use, the application program serves as an intermediary between the Web server and the database.
DBMS: Multi-user processing
used by several people concurrently; opposite of single-user. Unix is an example of a multi-user operating system, whereas most (but not all) versions of Microsoft Windows are intended to support only one user at a time.
DBMS: lost update problem
An error condition in which one user's data changes are overwritten by another user's data changes. Same as lost update problem.
DBMS: How to prevent Lost update
some type of locking must be used to coordinate the activities of users who know nothing about one another.
products process large organizational and workgroup databases.
These products support many, possibly thousands, of users and many different database applications.
Such DBMS products support 24/ 7 operations and can manage databases that span dozens of different magnetic disks with hundreds of gigabytes or more of data.
IBM's DB2, Microsoft's SQL Server, and Oracle's Oracle Database are examples of enterprise DBMS products.
products are designed for smaller, simpler database applications.
Such products are used for personal or small workgroup applications that involve fewer than 100 users, and normally fewer than 15.
In fact, the great bulk of databases in this category have only a single user.
The professor's Student database is an example of a database that is processed by a personal DBMS product.
DBMS: NoSQL DBMS.
This term refers to software systems that support very high transaction rates, processing relatively simple data structures, replicated on many servers in the cloud.
Motivations for this approach include simplicity of design, horizontal scaling and finer control over availability.
DBMS: NoSQL DBMS examples
DBMS: Will NoSQL Replace Relational DBMS Products?
Probably not. Such conversion would be enormously expensive and disruptive, and in cases where the relational database meets the organization's needs, would also be unnecessary.
NoSQL DBMS products are very technical and can be used only by those with a deep background in computer science.
Internet: computer network
a collection of computers that communicate with one another over transmission lines or wirelessly.
Internet: local area network ( LAN)
connects computers that reside in a single geographic location on the premises of the company that operates the LAN. The number of connected computers can range from two to several hundred. The distinguishing characteristic of a LAN is a single location.
an organization can place communications lines wherever it wants, because all lines reside on its premises.
Internet: wide area network ( WAN)
connects computers at different geographic locations. The computers in two separated company sites must be connected using a WAN.
A company with offices in Chicago and Atlanta cannot run a wire down the freeway to connect computers in the two cities. Instead, the company contracts with a communications vendor that is licensed by the government and that already has lines or has the authority to run new lines between the two cities.
Internet: LAN vs. WAN
To illustrate, the computers for a College of Business located on a single campus can be connected via a LAN. The computers for a College of Business located on multiple campuses must be connected via a WAN.
Internet: An internet
is a network of networks. Internets connect LANs, WANs, and other internets.
Internet: "the Internet" ( with an uppercase letter I ),
the collection of networks that you use when you send email or access a Web site. In addition to the Internet, private networks of networks, called internets, also exist.
A private internet that is used exclusively within an organization
is a set of rules that programs on two communicating devices follow. Provides seamless flow between networks.
Internet: small office or a home office ( SOHO)
such LANs have fewer than a dozen or so computers and printers. Many businesses, of course, operate LANs that are much larger than this one.
LAN devices are usually provided by the phone or cable vendor. They have many different names, depending on the brand.
when you connect your SOHO LAN, phone, iPad, or Kin-dle to the Internet, you are connecting to a WAN.
connection: a switch
which is a special- purpose computer that receives and transmits wired traffic on the LAN.
When either of these two computers connected to the switch communicates with each other or with printer 1, it does so by sending the traffic over wires to the switch, which redirects the traffic to the other computer or printer 1.
connection: LAN device is a small computer that contains the following networking components.
1) It has a switch it also has a device for wireless communication
2) devices for connecting to a WAN and via the WAN to the Internet.
connection: network interface card ( NIC)
Each wired computer or printer on the LAN has one.
A device that connects the computer's or printer's circuitry to the network wires.
The NIC works with programs in each device to implement the protocols necessary for communication.
connection: onboard NIC
which is a NIC built into the computer's circuitry.
connection: The computers, printers, and the switches on a wired LAN are connected using one of two wired media:
unshielded twisted pair ( UTP) cable
optical fiber cables
connection: unshielded twisted pair ( UTP) cable
Most LAN connections are made using ________
This cable contains sets of wires that are twisted together to improve signal quality.
connection: optical fiber cables
if the connection carries a lot of traffic, the UTP cable may be replaced by a ________
The signals on such cables are light rays, and they are reflected inside the glass core of the optical fiber cable.
connection: Practical wired connection of LANs
Typically, in a building with several floors, a switch is placed on each floor, and the computers on that floor are connected to the switch with a UTP cable. The switches on each floor are connected to each other via the faster- speed optical fiber cable.
connection: wireless NIC ( WNIC)
a device that connects the computer's or printer's circuitry to the network wires. The NIC works with programs in each device to implement the protocols necessary for communication.
Today, nearly all personal computers ship from the factory with an onboard WNIC.
connection: access point
the WNIC devices connect to an _________
The component of the LAN device that processes wireless traffic and communicates with the wired switch.
With this design every device on the LAN, whether wired or wireless, can communicate with every other device.
Internet: Wireless Vs. Wired LANs
Wireless devices communicate to each other via the access point.
If wireless devices need to connect to a wired device, they do so via the access point, then to the switch, and then to the wired devices.
Similarly, wired devices communicate to each other via the switch.
If the wired devices need to connect to wireless ones, they do so via the switch, then to the access point, and then to the wireless devices.
Internet: LAN Protocols
1.IEEE 802.3 (Wired LAN,10/100/1000 Mbps, Ethernet)
2.IEEE 802.11 (Wireless LAN, 802.11n, Bluetooth)
Internet: IEEE 802.3 protocol
is used for wired LAN connections.
This protocol standard, also called Ethernet, specifies hardware characteristics, such as which wire carries which signals.
It also describes how messages are to be packaged and processed for wired transmission over the LAN.
Internet: 10/ 100/ 1000 Ethernet
The NICs in most personal computers today support what is called _________
These products conform to the 802.3 specification and allow for transmission at a rate of 10, 100, or 1,000 Mbps ( megabits per second).
Switches detect the speed that a given device can handle and communicate with it at that speed.
Dell, Lenovo advertise this speed
Today, speeds of up to 1 Gbps are possible on wired LANs.
Internet: Bits vs. Bytes
communications speeds are expressed in bits, whereas memory sizes are expressed in bytes.
Internet: IEEE 802.11 protocol.
Wireless LAN connections use the _______
version of 802.11
allows speeds of up to 600 Mbps.
is another common wireless protocol.
It is designed for transmitting data over short distances, replacing cables.
Some devices, such as wireless mice and keyboards, use Blue-tooth to connect to the computer.
Smartphones use Bluetooth to connect to automobile entertainment systems
Internet service provider ( ISP)
When you connect to the Internet, you are actually connecting to an______
Internet: 3 Internet service provider Functions
-First, it provides you with a legitimate Internet address. -Second, it serves as your gateway to the Internet. The ISP receives the communications from your computer and passes them on to the Internet, and it receives communications from the Internet and passes them on to you.
-Third, ISPs pay for the Internet. They collect money from their customers and pay access fees and other charges on your behalf.
Internet: SOHO LANs and individual home and office computers are commonly connected to an ISP in one of three ways:
1) a special telephone line called a DSL line
2) a cable TV line
3) a wireless- phone- like connection.
Each of these alternatives uses its own, special protocol.
connection: digital subscriber line ( DSL)
provides an Internet connection that uses the same lines as voice telephones, but they operate so that their signals do NOT interfere with voice telephone service.
connection: Cable lines
provide high- speed data transmission using cable television lines. The cable com-pany installs a fast, high capacity optical fiber cable to a distribution center in each neighborhood that it serves. At the distribution center, the optical fiber cable connects to regular cable television cables that run to subscribers' homes or businesses. Cables operate in such a way that their signals do not.
At the maximum, users can download data up to 50 Mbps and can upload data at 512 Kbps. Typically, performance is much lower than this.
connection: WAN wireless connection
Amazon. com's Kindle, for example, uses a Sprint, Verizon, and other wireless networks to provide wireless data connections.
WAN wireless provides an average performance of 500 Kbps, with peaks of up to 1.7 Mbps, as opposed to the typical 50 Mbps for LAN wireless.
lines typically have transmission speeds less than 56 Kbps
connection: Broadband lines
have speeds in excess of 256 Kbps. Today, all popular communication technologies provide broadband capability, and so these terms are likely to fade from use.
IP: TCP/ IP Protocol architecture
The protocols used on the Internet are arranged according to a structure known as the __________, which is a scheme of five protocol types arranged in layers.
IP: TCP/IP protocol Layers
the top layer concerns protocols for applications like browsers and Web servers.
The next two layers concern protocols about data communications across any internet ( note the small i; this means any network of networks), including the Internet.
The bottom two layers involve protocols that concern data transmission within a network. For example, the IEEE 802.3 and 802.11 LAN protocols operate at the bottom two layers.
IP: 3 common TCP/ IP application- layer protocols
2.SMTP or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (is used for email transmissions ( along with other protocols as well)).
3.FTP or File Transfer Protocol
IP: HTTP protocol
The protocol used between browsers and Web servers. When you use a browser such as Internet Explorer, Safari, or Chrome, you are using a program that implements the HTTP protocol.
Your browser sends requests for service encoded in a predefined HTTP request format; the server receives that request, does something, and formats a response in a predefined HTTP response format.
a secure version of HTTP
IP: HTTP VS. HTTPS
Whenever you see https in your browser's address bar, you have a secure transmission, and you can safely send sensitive data like credit card numbers. When you are on the Internet, if you do not see https, then you should assume that all of your communication is open and could be published on the front page of your campus newspaper tomorrow morning.
IP: FTP or File Transfer Protocol
used to move files over the Internet. One very common use for FTP is to maintain Web sites. When a Web site administrator wishes to post a new picture or story on a Web server, the administrator will often use FTP to move the picture or other item to the server.
There is a secure version
Internet: Web VS Internet
You are using the Internet when you use any of these protocols. However, you are using the Web only when you use either HTTP or HTTPS.
Web: the Web
is the Internet- based network of browsers and servers that process HTTP or HTTPS.
IP: TCP, or the Transmission Control Protocol
The most important protocol in the transport layer is________
These protocols manage traffic as it passes across an internet ( including the Internet) from one network to another.
IP: How does TCP work?
is that TCP programs break your traffic up into pieces and send each piece along its way.
It then works with TCP programs on other devices in the internet to ensure that all of the pieces arrive at their destination.
If one or more pieces are lost or damaged, TCP programs detect that condition and cause retransmission of that piece. Hence, the TCP layer is said to provide reliable internet transport.
IP: IP ( Internet Protocol)
The primary protocol of the Internet layer
specifies the routing of the pieces of your message through the networks that comprise any internet ( including the Internet).
IP: A packet
is a piece of a message that is handled by programs that implement IP.
IP: A router
is a special- purpose computer that moves packet traffic according to the rules of the IP protocol.
IP: How does IP work?
Your message is broken into packets and each packet is sent out onto the Internet.
The packet contains the address of where it is supposed to go.
Routers along the way receive the packet, examine the destination IP address, and send it either to the desired destination, or to another router that is closer to the desired destination.
IP: An IP address
is a number that identifies a particular device.
IP: Public IP addresses
identify a particular device on the public Internet.
controlled by a public agency known as ICANN ( Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers).
IP: Private IP addresses
identify a particular device on a private network, usually on a LAN. Their assignment is controlled within the LAN.
IP: Functions of the LAN Device
• Switch processing IEEE 802.3 wired LAN traffic
• Access- point processing IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN traffic
• Translation between IEEE 802.3 and IEEE 802.11
• Modem converting between analog and digital
• Server that assigns private IP addresses
• Private/ public IP address translation converting between private and public IP addresses
• Internet router routing packets
IP: IP addresses have two formats
1. IPv4, The most common form, has a four- decimal dotted notation like 22.214.171.124;
2. IPv6, Because it is longer, can allow for millions of more IP addresses than IPv4.
connection: virtual private network ( VPN)
uses the Internet to create the appearance of private point-to- point connections.
VPN communications are secure, even though they are transmitted over the public Internet they are often encrypted.
offer the benefit of point- to- point leased lines, and they enable remote access, both by employees and by any others who have been registered with the VPN server.
connection: How does a VPN work?
VPN software on the remote user's computer establishes a connection with the VPN server in Chicago. The VPN client and VPN server then have a point- to- point connection. That connection, called a tunnel, is a virtual, private pathway over a public or shared network from the VPN client to the VPN server.
Web: three- tier architecture
Almost all ecommerce applications use the________
which is an arrangement of user computers and servers into three categories, or tiers.
Web: The user tier
consists of computers, phones, and other devices that have browsers that request and process Web pages.
Web: The server tier
consists of computers that run Web servers and process application programs.
Web: The database tier
consists of computers that run a DBMS that processes requests to retrieve and store data.
are programs that run on a server tier computer and that manage HTTP traffic by sending and receiving Web pages to and from clients.
Web: A commerce server
is an application program that runs on a server- tier computer. A commerce server receives requests from users via the Web server, takes some action, and returns a response to the users via the Web server. Typical commerce server functions are to obtain product data from a database, manage the items in a shopping cart, and coordinate the checkout process.
Web sites usually are supported by several or even many Web server computers in a facility called a Web farm. Work is distributed among the computers in a Web farm so as to minimize customer delays.
Web: Hypertext Markup Language ( HTML)
is the most common language for defining the structure and layout of Web pages.
Web: An HTML tag
is a notation used to define a data element for display or other purposes.
Web pages include hyperlinks, which are pointers to other Web pages. A hyperlink con-tains the URL of the Web page to find when the user clicks the hyperlink. The URL can reference a page on the server that generated the page containing the hyperlink, or it can reference a page on another server.
This tag has an attribute, which is a variable used to provide properties about a tag. Not all tags have attributes, but many do.
The attribute for a hyperlink is href, and its value indicates which Web page is to be displayed when the user clicks the link.
Cloud: The cloud
is the elastic leasing of pooled computer resources that are accessed via Internet protocols.
The term cloud is used because most early diagrams of three- tier and other Internet- based systems used a cloud symbol to represent the Internet, and organizations came to view their infrastructure as being " somewhere in the cloud."
the amount of resources leased can be increased or decreased dynamically, programmatically, in a short span of time and that organizations pay for just the resources that they use.
because many different organizations use the same physical hardware; they share that hardware through virtualization.
Cloud: Why Now?
Technology now supports construction and use of enormous data centers
Processors, data communication, data storage nearly free
Web farms providing virtual machine for about 1.5¢ per hour
Web service standards
that sit on top of HTTP and are used to specify how computers interoperate. The provider of a Web service, such as a cloud- hosting organization, uses these standards to specify the work that it will perform and how it will provide it.
Cloud: the private cloud
which is in-house hosting, delivered via Web service standards, that can be configured dynamically.
Cloud service: the three Cloud- based service categories
1. SaaS ( software as a service): Salesforce. com, iCloud, Office 365
2. PaaS ( platform as a service): Microsoft Azure, Oracle on Demand
3. IaaS ( infrastructure as a service): Amazon EC2 ( Elastic Cloud 2) Amazon S3 ( Simple Storage Service)
Cloud service: software as a service ( SaaS)
provides not only hardware infrastructure, but also an operating system and application programs on top of that hardware.
Cloud service: PaaS ( platform as a service)
where vendors provide hosted computers, an operating system, and possibly a DBMS.
Cloud service: IaaS ( infrastructure as a service
which is the cloud hosting of a bare server computer or disk drive.
mobile: What Are Mobile Systems?
Mobile systems are information systems that support users in motion. Mobile systems users access the system from any place: at home, at work, in the car, on the bus, or at the beach— using any smart device, such as smartphone, tablet, or PC. The possibilities are endless.
mobile: major elements in a mobile system
users in motion,
and cloud- based resources.
mobile: mobile device
is a small, lightweight, power- conserving, computing device that is capable of wireless connectivity. Almost all mobile devices have a display and some means for data entry.
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