Upgrade to remove ads
ISA 235 Strouble Real Final
Terms in this set (396)
information systems: How do information systems vary by scope?
Personal, workgroup, enterprise, inter-enterprise
information systems: Personal information systems
information systems used by a single individual. The con-tact manager in your iPhone or in your email account is an example of a personal information system. Because such systems have only one user, procedures are simple and probably not documented or formalized in any way.
information systems: workgroup information system
an information system that facilitates the activities of a group of people. At a physicians' partnership, doctors, nurses, and staff use information sys-tems to manage patient appointments, keep patient records, schedule in- office procedures and equipment, and facilitate other workgroup activities. support 10 to 100 users.
information systems: departmental information systems
Workgroup information systems that support a particular department. An example is the accounts payable system that is used by the accounts payable department.
information systems: functional information systems
Other workgroup information systems support a particular business function. An example of a functional system is a sales application like the Zulily application
information systems: Enterprise information systems
information systems that span an organization and sup-port activities of people in multiple departments. At a hospital, doctors, nurses, the pharmacy, the kitchen, and others use information systems to track patients, treatments, medications, diets, room assignments, and so forth. have hundreds to thousands of users. The solutions to problems in an enterprise system usually involve more than one department.
information systems: Enterprise information system Procedures
Procedures are formalized and extensively documented; users undergo formal procedure training. Some-times enterprise systems include categories of procedures, and users are defined according to levels of expertise with the system as well as by levels of security authorization.
information systems: Inter- enterprise information systems
information systems that are shared by two or more independent organizations. The PRIDE system introduced at the start of this part is an inter-enterprise system that is shared among patients, health care providers, health clubs, insurance companies, and employers. All of these organizations have an interest in assigning, recording, or viewing individual performance data.
information systems: How do enterprise systems solve the problems of information silos?
An information silo is the condition that exists when data are isolated in separated information systems. Silos come into existence as entities at one organizational level create information systems that meet their particular needs only. Answers is found 2 questions below.
information systems: information silo
the condition that exists when data are isolated in separated information systems. Silos come into existence as entities at one organizational level create information systems that meet their particular needs only.
information systems: data integrity problem.
When an organization has inconsistent duplicated data
information systems: information silo problems
Data duplication, data inconsistency, Disjointed processes, Limited information and lack of integrated information, Isolated decisions lead to organizational inefficiencies, Increased expense
business process reengineering
the activity of altering and designing business processes to take advantage of new information systems. difficult, slow, and exceedingly expensive.
3 major enterprise applications
customer relationship management ( CRM) system
Enterprise resource planning ( ERP)
enterprise application integration ( EAI)
3 major enterprises: inherent processes
predesigned procedures for using the software products, saved organizations from expensive and time consuming business process reengineering. Instead, organizations could license the software and obtain, as part of the deal, prebuilt procedures, which the vendors assured them were based upon " industry best practices."
3 major enterprises: customer relationship management ( CRM) system
a suite of applications, a database, and a set of inherent processes for managing all the interactions with the customer, from lead generation to customer service. Every contact and transaction with the customer is recorded in the CRM database.
3 major enterprises: customer life cycle:
marketing, customer acquisition, relationship management, and loss/ churn.
3 major enterprises: Enterprise resource planning ( ERP)
a suite of applications, a database, and a set of inherent processes for consolidating business operations into a single, consistent, computing platform. used to forecast sales and to create manufacturing plans and schedules to meet those forecasts. Manufacturing schedules include the use of material, equipment, and personnel and thus need to incorporate inventory and human resources applications. (SAP)
3 major enterprises: enterprise application integration ( EAI)
EAI is a suite of software applications that integrates existing systems by providing layers of software that connect applications together.
Connects system "islands" via a new layer of software/ system.
Enables existing applications to communicate and share data.
Provides integrated information.
Leverages existing systems-leaving functional applications as is, but providing an integration layer over the top.
It enables a gradual move to ERP.
The major benefit of EAI: enables organizations to use existing applications while eliminating many of the serious problems of isolated systems. Converting to an EAI system: not disruptive as converting to ERP, provides many of the benefits of ERP.
3 major enterprises: What Are the Challenges When Implementing New Enterprise Systems? (4)
• Collaborative management
Unlike departmental systems in which a single department manager is in charge, enterprise systems have no clear boss. committees and steering groups for providing enterprise process management. Although this can be an effective solution, and in fact may be the only solution, the work of such groups is both slow and expensive.
• Requirements gaps
Few organizations today create their own enterprise systems from scratch. Instead, they license an enterprise product that provides specific functions and features and that includes inherent procedures. But, such licensed products are never a perfect fit. Almost always there are gaps between the requirements of the organization and the capabilities of the licensed application.
• Transition problems
Transitioning to a new enterprise system is also difficult. The organization must some-how change from using isolated departmental systems to using the new enterprise system, while continuing to run the business. It's like having heart surgery while running a 100- yard dash.
• Employee resistance
People resist change. Change requires effort and it engenders fear. Considerable research and literature exists about the reasons for change resistance and how organizations can deal with it. Here we will summarize the major principles.
First, senior- level management needs to communicate the need for the change to the organization and must reiterate that, as necessary, throughout the transition process. Second, employees fear change because it threatens their self- efficacies, which is a person's belief that he or she can be successful at his or her job.
3 major enterprises: distributed systems
3 major enterprises: How do interenterprise IS solve the problems of enterprise silos?
By using PRIDE to combine and display the information in the silos in one database so that all groups within the Inter-Enterprise IS can produce reports from the integrated data.
SMIS: Social media ( SM)
the use of information technology to support the sharing of content among networks of users. Social media enables people to form communities, tribes, or hives, all of which are synonyms that refer to a group of people related by a common interest.
SMIS: social media information system ( SMIS)
an information system that supports the sharing of content among networks of users.
SMIS: Three SMIS Roles
User communities: Example: You, your friends, peers, co-workers
Social media sponsors: any company or organization who supports Social media by using links to FB or twitter on their page. Example: Nordstrom, Deadspin, Jimmy Johns.
Social media application providers: Example Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter.
SMIS: User communities
The key difference of SM communities is that they are formed based on mutual interests and transcend familial, geographic, and organizational boundaries.
SMIS: viral hook
which is some inducement, such as a prize or other reward, for passing communications along through the tiers.
SMIS: Social media sponsors
companies and other organizations that choose to support a presence on one or more SM sites.
SMIS: Social media application providers
the companies that operate the SM sites. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Google are all SM application providers. These providers create the features and functions of the site, and they compete with one another for the attention of user communities and SM sponsors.
user- any user computing device (phone/laptop)
sponsor- any user computing device (phone/laptop)
provider- Cloud-based server
user- Browser and other application tools (iOS)
sponsor- Browser and other application tools
provider- Application (NoSQL or other DBMS)
user- user generated content (tweets)
sponsor- sponsor content (ads)
provider- Content and connection data storage with rapid retrieval
user- very informal, copying each others tendencies (Not making 15 FB statuses a day)
sponsor- Create/manage content, manage risk, analyze content and connections to find value
provider-Run and maintain the application
user- any person who uses social media. adaptive to change but sometimes irrational
sponsor-Key users, companies, or organizations
provider-staff of FB who runs and maintains application
Both community users and employees of SM sponsors process SM sites using desktops, laptops, smartphones, iPads, HTML 5 devices, and, indeed, any intelligent communications device. In most cases, SM application providers host the SM presence using elastic servers in the cloud.
Users employ browsers and native mobile applications, such as iOS applications, to read and submit data and to add and remove connections to communities and other users. SM sponsors contribute to the site via browsers or using specialized sponsor applications provided by the SM application provider. In some cases, like, say, Facebook applications, SM sponsors create their own applications and interface those applications with the SM site.
SM data falls into two categories: content and connection. Content data and Connection data.
SMIS: Content data
data and responses to data that are contributed by users and SM sponsors. You provide the source content data for your Facebook site, and your friends provide response content when they write on your wall, make comments, tag you, or otherwise publish on your site.
SMIS: Connection data
data about relationships. On Facebook, for example, the relationships to your friends are connection data. The fact that you've liked particular organizations is also connection data. Connection data differentiates SMIS from Web site applications.
For social networking users, procedures are informal, evolving, and socially oriented. You do what your friends do. When the members of your tribe learn how to do something new and in-teresting, you copy them. Software is designed to be easy to learn and use.
Users of social media do what they want to do depending on their goals and their personalities. They behave in certain ways and observe the consequences.
SMIS: Gossieaux and Moran, creators of the hyper- social organization theory, identify two kinds of communities that are important to commerce:
• Defenders of belief
share a common belief and form their hive around that belief. They seek conformity and want to convince others of the wisdom of their belief. A group that believes that Google+ is far superior to Facebook will engage in behaviors to convince others that this is true. When confronted with contrary evidence, they do not change their opinion, but become more firmly convinced in their belief.
• Seekers of the truth
share a common desire to learn something, solve a problem, or make something happen. such tribes are incredible problem solvers and excel at innovation. They can be useful in customer service activity, as long as they don't conclude that the best way to solve a product problem is to use another company's product, something they might do because such groups seldom form a strong bond to an organization.
SMIS: Social CRM
a dynamic, SM-based CRM process. The relationships between organizations and customers emerge in a dynamic process as both parties create and process content. Each customer crafts his or her own relationship with the company. This helps understand what consumers want and what sales/marketing techniques work best. Examples: wikis, blogs, discussion lists, frequently asked questions, sites for user reviews and commentary
the dynamic social media process of employing users to participate in product design or product redesign.
SMIS: Enterprise 2.0
the application of social media to facilitate the cooperative work of people inside organizations. Enterprise 2.0 can be used in operations and manufacturing to enable users to share knowledge and problem- solving techniques.
content structure that has emerged from the processing of many user tags.
SMIS: SLATES Enterprise 2.0
Search: (People have more success searching than they do finding from structured content.)
Links: (Links to enterprise resources ( like on the Web).
Authoring: (Create enterprise content via blogs, wikis, discussion groups, presentations, etc.)
Tags: (Flexible tagging ( e. g., Delicious) results in folksonomies of enterprise content.)
Extensions Signals: (Pushing enterprise content to users based on subscriptions and alerts.)
as the investment of resources for future profit. This traditional definition refers to investments into resources such as factories, machines, manufacturing equipment, and the like.
capital: Human capital
is the investment in human knowledge and skills for future profit.
capital: social capital adds value in four ways:
• Social credentials
• Personal reinforcement
capital: value of social capital
determined by the number of relationships in a social network, by the strength of those relationships, and by the resources controlled by those related.
SMIS: social media policy
a statement that delineates employees' rights and responsibilities.
SMIS: Intel Corporation SM policies:
• Use Common Sense
SMIS: User- generated content ( UGC)
content on your SM site that is con-tributed by nonemployee users, is the essence of SM relationships. As with any relationship, however, UGC comments can be inappropriate or excessively negative in tone or otherwise problematic. Organizations need to determine how they will deal with such content before en-gaging in social media.
SMIS: major sources of UGC problems are:
• Junk and crackpot contributions • Inappropriate content • Unfavorable reviews • Mutinous movements
BI: Business intelligence ( BI) systems
information systems that process operational and other data to analyze past performance and to make predictions.
BI: business intelligence.
The patterns, relationships, and trends identified by BI systems
The software component of a BI system
BI: What are the three primary activities in the BI process:
the process of obtaining, cleaning, organizing, relating, and cataloging source data.
is the process of creating business intelligence. The three fundamental categories of BI analysis are reporting, data mining, and BigData.
and publish results
is the process of delivering business intelligence to the knowledge workers who need it.
Print, Web servers, Report servers, Automation
BI: Push publishing
delivers business intelligence to users without any request from the users; the BI results are delivered according to a schedule or as a result of an event or par-ticular data condition.
BI: Pull publishing
requires the user to request BI results. Publishing media include print as well as online content delivered via Web servers, specialized Web servers known as report servers, and BI results that are sent via automation to other programs.
BI: data warehouse
which is a facility for managing an organization's BI data. Data warehouses include data that are purchased from outside sources. The purchase of data about other companies is not unusual or particularly concerning from a privacy stand-point.
BI: The functions of a data warehouse are to:
• Obtain data • Cleanse data • Organize and relate data • Catalog data
BI: Problems with Operational Data
Most operational and purchased data have problems that inhibit their usefulness for business intelligence.
Dirty data: (problematic data: "Age=R"), missing values, inconsistent data(change in area code over time), data not integrated, wrong granularity (data detail is too fine or not fine enough), too much data (too many attributes or too many data points)
BI: Problematic data are termed dirty data.
Examples are a value of B for customer gender and of 213 for customer age.
BI: Purchased data often contain missing elements.
Most data vendors state the percent-age of missing values for each attribute in the data they sell. An organization buys such data because for some uses, some data are better than no data at all.
BI: Inconsistent data
When an area code changes, for example, the phone number for a given customer before the change will not match the customer's number after the change.
BI: Another problem is nonintegrated data.
A particular BI analysis might require data from an ERP system, an e- commerce system, and a social networking application.
BI: Data can also have the wrong granularity
a term that refers to the level of detail represented by the data. Granularity can be too fine or too coarse.
BI: too fine granularity
Although all of that data may be useful for a study of consumer browsing behavior, it will be overwhelming if all we want to know is how customers respond to an ad located differently on the screen.
BI: too coarse granularity
a file of regional sales totals cannot be used to investigate the sales in a particular store in a region, and total sales for a store cannot be used to determine the sales of particular items within a store. Instead, we need to obtain data that is fine enough for the lowest- level report we want to produce.
BI: data mart
is a data collection, smaller than the data warehouse, that addresses the needs of a particular department or functional area of the business. If the data warehouse is the distributor in a supply chain, then a data mart is like a retail store in a supply chain.
BI: Reporting analysis
is the process of sorting, grouping, summing, filtering and formatting structured data.
Creates information about past performance. Processes structured data by sorting, grouping, summing, filtering, and formatting.
BI: exception reports
are reports produced when something out of predefined bounds occurs. A report that is produced when the Dow Jones falls below a certain level is an exception report.
BI: Structured data
is data in the form of rows and columns.
BI: Data mining
an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science,is the computational process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, statistics, and database systems. The overall goal of the data mining process is to extract information from a data set and transform it into an understandable structure for further use.
Classifies and makes predictions from data. Uses sophisticated statistical techniques to find patterns and relationships.
BI: unsupervised data mining
analysts do not create a model or hypothesis before running the analysis. Instead, they apply the data mining technique to the data and observe the results. With this method, analysts create hypotheses after the analysis to explain the patterns found.
BI: cluster analysis
statistical techniques identify groups of entities that have similar characteristics. A common use for cluster analysis is to find groups of similar customers from customer order and demographic data.
BI: supervised data mining
data miners develop a model prior to the analysis and apply statistical techniques to data to estimate parameters of the model.
BI: regression analysis
analysis, which measures the impact of a set of variables on another variable
BI: Big data
is a term used to describe data collections that are characterized by huge volume, rapid velocity, and great variety.
BigData analysis finds patterns and relationships in BigData. MapReduce is needed usually needed because of the volume, velocity, and variety of the data collections.
a technique for harnessing the power of thousands of computers working in parallel. The basic idea is that the BigData collection is broken into pieces, and hundreds or thousands of independent processors search these pieces for something of interest.
is an open- source program supported by the Apache Foundation2 that manages thousands of computers and which implements MapReduce.
enables the distributed processing of large data sets across clusters of commodity servers and which implements MapReduce.
BI: Static reports
are BI documents that are fixed at the time of creation and do not change. A printed sales analysis is an example of a static report. In the BI context, most static reports are published as PDF documents.
BI: Dynamic reports
are BI documents that are updated at the time they are requested. A sales report that is current as of the time the user accessed it on a Web server is a dynamic report.
which are user requests for particular BI results on a particular schedule or in response to particular events. For example, a user can subscribe to a daily sales report, requesting that it be delivered each morning.
is a Web server application that is purpose- built for the publishing of busi-ness intelligence. The Microsoft SQL Server Report manager ( part of Microsoft SQL Server Reporting Services) is the most popular such product today, but there are other products as well.
SD: Systems development or systems analysis and design
is the process of creating and maintaining information systems.
SD: Systems development is difficult and risky.
Many projects are never finished. Of those that are finished, some are 200 or 300 percent over budget.
SD: Difficulties with Systems Development
The Difficulty of Requirements Determination,
Changes in Requirements,
Scheduling and Budgeting Difficulties,
Diseconomies of Scale (Brook's Law)
it requires coordinated teamwork of both specialists and non-specialists with business knowledge.
requirements are difficult to determine
aims at a moving target
costs a lot and takes time
SD: Brooks' Law
Adding more people to a late project makes the project later.
SD: systems development life cycle ( SDLC)
is the traditional process used to develop information systems.
SD:SDLC five- phase process:
1. System definition
2. Requirements analysis
3. Component design
SD: system definition
use management's statement of the system needs in order to begin to define the new system ( for PRIDE, this statement is based on experience with the prototype).
SD: Define System Goals and Scope
Asess Feasibility (Cost, time, organizational, technical)
Form a Project Team
SD: What is the Users' Role in the Requirements Phase?
The primary purpose of the requirements analysis phase is to determine and document the specific features and functions of the new system. For most development projects, this phase requires interviewing dozens of users and documenting potentially hundreds of requirements. Requirements definition is, thus, expensive. It is also difficult, as you will see.
SD: Requirements Phase
Role of a Prototype
SD: Requirements Phase: Determining the system's requirements
the most important phase in the systems development process. If the requirements are wrong, the system will be wrong.
If the requirements are determined completely and correctly, then design and implementation will be easier and more likely to result in success.
Requirements analysis to determine all requirements include: Conduct user interviews, Evaluate existing systems, Determine new Web pages/forms/reports/queries, Identify new application features and functions, Consider security, Create the data model, Consider all five components.
SD: test plan
consists of sequences of actions that users will take when using the new system. Test plans include not only the normal actions that users will take, but also incorrect actions.
SD: product quality assurance ( PQA),
PQA personnel usually construct the test plan with the advice and assistance of users. PQA test engineers perform testing, and they also supervise user test activity. Many PQA professionals are programmers who write auto-mated test programs.
SD: Beta testing
is the process of allowing future system users to try out the new system on their own.
SD: system conversion
is often used for this activity because it implies the process of convert-ing business activity from the old system to the new.
SD: system conversion four ways:
• Pilot-the organization implements the entire system on a limited portion of the business.
• Phased-the new system is installed in phases across the organization.
• Parallel-the new system runs in parallel with the old one until the new system is tested and fully operational.
• Plunge-With it, the organization shuts off the old system and starts the new system.
SD: The SDLC Waterfall
Like a series of waterfalls, the process is supposed to operate in a sequence of nonrepetitive phases. For example, the team completes the requirements phase and goes over the waterfall into the design phase, and on through the process
data about candidates' sex, race, religion, sexual orientation, and disabilities that is illegal to use for hiring decisions.
capital: Social Capital
Democratic and civic habits of discussion, compromise, and respect for differences, which grow out of participation in voluntary organizations.
SMIS: Strength of a relationship
the likelihood that the entity ( person or other organization) in the relationship will do something that benefits the organization. An organization has a strong relationship with you if you buy its products, write positive reviews about it, post pictures of you using the organization's products or services, and so on.
SMIS: Social media and customer service
Customer service can be found on web pages for the organization or through replies on twitter to customers tweets regarding the product or service. This allows others to record their input along with the company, giving more insight to how to fix something or product reviews from other users
SMIS: Social media and inbound and outbound logistics
Because supply chains are tightly integrated into structured manufacturing processes, there is less tolerance for the unpredictability of dynamic, adaptive processes like social media.
Social media is designed to foster content creation and feedback among networks of users, and that characteristic facilitates the iteration and feedback needed for problem solving. BUT supply chain problem solving via social media is problem solving in front of your competitors. Example of problems: Earthquake in Japan caused delays in the shipping and manufacturing of car parts to and from Japan. Social media was used to spread news, and solve problems.
SMIS: Social media and manufacturing and operations
SM can be used to develop new products, alter manufacturing processes, and solve issues by crowdsourcing or Enterprise 2.0 which facilitates cooperation of people inside organizations.
SMIS: Enterprise 2.0 components:
Search, Links, Authoring, Tags, Extensions, and Signals
SMIS: Social media and human resources
Social media is used for finding employee prospects; for recruiting candidates; and, in some organizations, for candidate evaluation.
SMIS: How does SMIS increase social capital?
capital: What is the value of social capital?
determined by the number of relationships in a social network, by the strength of those relationships, and by the resources controlled by those related.
SMIS: How do social networks add value to businesses?
By increasing number of relationships, increasing strength of relationships, and connecting to those with more assests/resources.
SMIS: Using social networking to increase the number of relationships
followers/subscribers/"friends" by promotion from other SM users, paid promotion on SM providers.
SMIS: Using social networking to increase the strength of relationships
staying in touch with consumers/producers and adding value to relationship possibly with deals or special offers to users who interact with the company through SM.
SMIS: How can organizations manage the risks of social media?
Develop and publicize a social media policy to control employee communication and be able to monitor and react to user-generated content.
SMIS: Managing the risk of employee communication
Stress these 3 topics:
Discloser of data,
and use of common sense.
SMIS: Managing the risk of user-generated content
Hire a company or have employees monitor user content, consider making user content non-anonymous to repel spam bots or perhaps discourage unruly or inappropriate posts, know when and how to respond to content such as criticisms or reviews
is data that a Web site stores on your computer to record something about its interaction with you.
The cookie might contain data such as the date you last visited, whether or not you are currently signed in, or something else about your interaction with that site.
Cookies can also contain a key value to one or more tables in a database that the server company maintains about your past interactions.
In that case, when you access a site, the server uses the value of the cookie to look up your history.
Such data could include your past purchases, portions of incomplete transactions, or the data and appear-ance you want for your Web page. Most of the time cookies ease your interaction with Web sites.
A third party cookie
is a cookie created by a site other than the one you visited. Such cookies are generated in several ways, but the most common occurs when a Web page includes content from multiple sources.
For example, Amazon designs its pages so that one or more sections contain ads provided by the ad- servicing company, DoubleClick. When the browser constructs your Amazon page, it contacts Double- Click to obtain the content for such sections ( in this case, ads).
When it responds with the content, DoubleClick instructs your browser to store a DoubleClick cookie.
That cookie is a third- party cookie. In general, third- party cookies do not contain the name or any value that identifies a particular user.
Hadoop includes a query language entitled __________
concerns the unintended release of protected information through the release of a combination of reports or documents that are independently not protected. The term data triangulation is also used for this same phenomenon.
Ray Kurzweil developed a concept he calls_______
3 which is the point at which computer systems become sophisticated enough that they can adapt and create their own software and hence adapt their behavior without human assistance. At that point, he claims that farms of thousands of computers working 24/ 7 will accelerate away from humanity and humans will become, well, what? Work with your team and state what you think the consequences of the singularity might be.
How do organizations use data warehouses and data marts to acquire data?
Programs read production and other data and extract, clean, and prepare that data for BI processing. The prepared data are stored in a data warehouse database using a data warehouse DBMS.
Metadata concerning the data— its source, its format, its assumptions and constraints, and other facts about the data— is kept in a data warehouse metadata database. The data warehouse DBMS extracts and provides data to BI applications.
BI: Data warehouses versus data marts
A data mart is a data collection, smaller than the data warehouse, that addresses the needs of a particular department or functional area of the business. The data warehouse takes data from the data producers and distributes the data into data marts.
BI: What is the purpose of a data warehouse?
to Obtain, Cleanse, Organize and relate, and Catalog large amounts of data
BI: What are the components of a data warehouse?
Production Databases, External Data, Other Internal Data, Data Extraction/Cleaning/Preparation Programs, Data Warehouse DBMS, Data Warehouse Metadata, Data Warehouse Database, BI Tools, BI users.
BI: What are three techniques for processing BI data?
Reporting, Data mining, BigData
BI: Map phase (MapReduce):
the BigData collection is broken into pieces, and hundreds or thousands of independent processors search these pieces for something of interest.
BI: Reduce phase (MapReduce):
procedure that performs a summary operation (such as counting the number of students in each queue, yielding name frequencies)
BI: What are the alternatives for publishing BI?
Email or collaboration tool, Web server, SharePoint, BI server.
Email or collaboration tool
Report Type: Static
Push Options: Manual
Skill Level Needed: Low
Report Type: Static/Dynamic
Push Options: Alert/ RSS
Skill Level Needed: Low for static/High for dynamic
Report Type: Static/Dynamic
Push Options: Alert/RSS
Skill Level Needed: Low for static/High for dynamic
Report Type: Dynamic
Push Options: Alert/ RSS Subscription
Skill Level Needed: High
BI: What are the two functions of a BI server?
The management function maintains metadata about the authorized allocation of BI results to users.
BI servers use metadata to determine what results to send to which users and, possibly, on which schedule.
Projects that spend so much time documenting requirements are sometimes said to be in analysis paralysis
involves an assessment of the cost of the project. Clearly, it depends on the scope of the project.
Even given an understanding of scope, however, as an inter- enterprise system PRIDE involves numerous different parties with different goals and objectives.
SD: SDLC Phase: 1. Systems Definition
Developers in the first SDLC phase— system definition— use management's statement of the system needs in order to begin to define the new system ( for PRIDE, this statement is based on experience with the prototype).
SD: SDLC Phase: 2. Requirements analysis
The resulting project plan is the input to the second phase— requirements analysis.
Here, developers identify the particular features and functions of the new system.
SD: SDLC Phase: 3. Component design
The output of that phase is a set of approved user requirements, which become the primary input used to design system components.
SD: SDLC Phase: 4. Implementation
In phase 4, developers implement, test, and install the new system.
Over time, users will find errors, mistakes, and problems.
They will also develop new requirements.
SD: SDLC Phase: 5. Maintenance
The description of fixes and new requirements is input into a system maintenance phase.
The maintenance phase starts the process all over again, which is why the process is considered a cycle.
SLDC: feasibility, schedule feasibility
is difficult to determine because it is hard to estimate the time it will take to build the system.
However, if Maggie determines that it will take, say, no less than 6 months to develop the system and put it into operation, Flores and partners can then decide if they can accept that minimum schedule.
At this stage of the project, the organization should not rely on either cost or schedule estimates; the purpose of these estimates is simply to rule out any obviously unacceptable projects.
SLDC:feasibility, Technical feasibility
refers to whether existing information technology is likely to be able to meet the needs of the new system.
Because PRIDE uses new technology ( the cloud) and innovative mobile devices ( exercise equipment and other devices), Flores decided to build a prototype to test feasibility.
As you learned at the start of this chapter, the system seems to be technically feasible.
SLDC:feasibility, organizational feasibility
concerns whether the new system fits within the organization's customs, culture, charter, or legal requirements. For example, will doctors be willing to use PRIDE?
Will they see it as an incursion into their practice?
Even more, the critical PRIDE users are sick, older people who may be technology- phobic.
Flores needed the prototype to demonstrate that it would work with this audience.
specialize in understanding business needs, strategies, and goals and helping businesses implement systems to accomplish their competitive strategies.
are IT professionals who understand both business and technology
SLDC: Business analysts vs. Systems analysts
Systems analysts are closer to IT and are a bit more technical, though there is consider-able overlap in the duties and responsibilities of business and systems analysts.
Both are active throughout the systems development process and play a key role in moving the project through the systems development process.
Business analysts work more with managers and executives; systems analysts integrate the work of the programmers, testers, and users. Depending on the nature of the project, the team may also include hardware and communications specialists, database designers and administrators, and other IT specialists.
With regard to the software component, software developers group fixes for high- priority failures into a patch that can be applied to all copies of a given product.
Software vendors supply patches to fix security and other critical problems.
bundles fixes of low- priority problems into larger groups called_________
Users apply service packs in much the same way that they apply patches, except that service packs typically involve fixes to hundreds or thousands of problems.
SLDC: The difficulty of requirements determination
Company doesn't know what it needs. Who will see what and at what time? and what will it look like? and how does it reach its destination? what applications are needed? what devices supported? where and how much privacy? etc.
SLDC:Changes in requirements
Requirements change as the system is developed, and, the bigger the system and the longer the project, the more the requirements change.
Assess by asking, "does this make sense?". Feasibility has four dimensions that can determine if the system implementation makes sense: cost, schedule, technical, and organizational.
SLDC:Form a project team
consists of both IS professionals and user representatives. The project manager and IS professionals can be in-house personnel or outside contractors.
SLDC:Requirements Phase: 2. Approve requirements
make sure they meet all needs. This is the easiest and cheapest time to alter the information system is in the requirements phase
SLDC:Requirements Phase: 3. The role of a prototype
provides direct experience. Users will assess usability and remember features and functions. Provide evidence to assess the system's technical and organizational feasibility and can be used to estimate both development and operational costs.
SLDC:How are the five components designed? Hardware design
determine specifications for the hardware needed and the source of that hardware. Can be purchased, leased, or leased as time from a hosting service in the cloud.
SLDC:How are the five components designed? Software design
Depends on the source of the programs.
Off-the- shelf software: determine candidate products and evaluate them against the requirements.
Off-the-shelf-with-alteration software: identifies products to be acquired off-the-shelf and determines the alterations required.
Custom-developed programs: produce design documentation for writing program code.
at this stage the team will decide whether they are building a thin-client or native application (all application processing can be on mobile or all in cloud or a mixture).
SLDC:How are the five components designed? Database Design
If developers are constructing a database, then during this phase they convert the data model to a database design. If developers are using off-the-shelf programs, the programs will handle their own database processing.
SLDC:How are the five components designed? Procedure design
Designed by teams of systems analysts and key users.
For a business information system, the system developers and the organization must also -design procedures for both users and operations personnel.
Procedures need to be developed for normal, backup, and failure recovery operations
SLDC:How are the five components designed? Design of people job descriptions
teams of systems analysts and users determine job descriptions and functions for both, users and operations personnel.How is an information system implemented?
Build, test, and convert the users to the new system.
Construct each of the components independently.
Obtain, install, and test hardware.
License and install off-the-shelf programs.
Write adaptations and custom programs if necessary.
Construct a database and fill it with data.
Document, review, and test procedures.
Create training programs and hire and train needed personnel.
Difficult, time consuming, and complex task.
Design and develop test plans and record the results of tests.
Devise a system to assign fixes to people and to verify that the fixes are correct and complete.
A test plan consists of sequences of actions that users will take when using the new system.
Include normal and incorrect actions a user may make. Should cause every line of program code (including error messages) to be executed.
Beta testing is the process of allowing future system users to try out the new system on their own.
SLDC: What are the tasks for system maintenance?
Record requests for change:
Patches (one high priority failure is addressed and fixed)
Service packs (hundreds of small problems are addressed and fixed together)
ERP: What are the elements of an ERP solution?
To be a true ERP product, it must include all of the following
Supply chain: procurement, sales order processing, inventory management, supplier management, and related activities.
Manufacturing: scheduling, capacity planning, quality control, bill of materials, and related activities.
CRM: sales prospecting, customer management, marketing, customer support, call center support.
Human resources: payroll, time and attendance, HR management, commission calculations, benefits administration, and related activities.
Accounting: general ledger, accounts receivable, accounts payable, cash management, fixed- asset accounting.
Elements are as followed: ERP application programs, ERP databases, business process procedures, and training and consulting.
ERP application programs
are configurable so that development teams can alter them to meet customer requirements without changing program code.
During the ERP development process, the development team sets configuration parameters that specify how ERP application programs will operate.
An ERP solution includes a database design as well as initial configuration data. During development, the team must enter the initial values for that company's data as part of the development effort.
contain thousands of tables. The design includes the metadata for those tables, as well as their relationships to each other and rules and constraints about how the data in some tables must relate to data in other tables.
Large databases have two types of program codes:
A trigger: computer program stored within the database that runs to keep the database consistent when certain conditions arise.
A stored procedure: computer program stored in the database that is used to enforce business rules.
ERP training 2 categories
Training about how to implement the ERP solution which includes topics such as obtaining top- level management support, preparing the organization for change, and dealing with the inevitable resistance that develops when people are asked to perform work in new ways.
Training on how to use the ERP application software which includes specific steps for using the E RP applications to accomplish the activities in certain processes
How are ERP systems implemented?
ERP: large organizational databases contain two types of program code.
1. a trigger, is a computer program stored within the database that runs to keep the database consistent when certain conditions arise.
2.stored procedure, is a computer program stored in the database that is used to enforce business rules. An example of such a rule would be never to sell certain items at a discount. Triggers and stored procedures are also part of the ERP solution.
ERP: Train the trigger
To reduce expenses, the vendors sometimes train some of the organization's employees, called Super Users, to become in- house trainers, in training sessions called _________
ERP: Business Process Procedures (process blueprints)
set of inherent procedures that implement standard business processes.
ERP: What are typical inter-enterprise processes?
An example of a simple inter- enterprise IS is a sales process at a small retailer in which the retailer processes customers' credit card trans-actions. The retailer, customer, and credit card company (and possibly the bank that issued the card) are all part of the business process that processes the payment.
SC: supply chain
a network of organizations and facilities that transforms raw materials into products delivered to customers.
SC: What factors affect supply chain performance?
Facilities: Location, size, operations methodology
Inventory: Size, inventory management
Transportation: In-house/outsourced, mode, routing
Information: Purpose, availability, means
SC: supply chain profitability
Supply chain profitability is the difference between the sum of the revenue generated by the supply chain and the sum of the costs that all organizations in the supply chain incur to obtain that revenue.
SC: Automated Clearing House ( ACH)
is an electronic network for financial transactions in the United States. It processes large volumes of credit and debit transactions in batches.
SC: Bullwhip effect
a term referring to ineffective communication between buyers and suppliers and infrequent delivery of materials, combined with production based on poor forecasts along a supply chain that results in either too little or too much inventory at various points of storage and consumption. Simply, it causes an amplification of the variation in the demand pattern along the supply chain
MIS: Why is Introduction to MIS the most important class in the business school?
1. It will give you the background you need to assess, evaluate, and apply emerging information systems technology to business.
2. It can give you the ultimate in job security— marketable skills— by helping you learn abstraction, systems thinking, collaboration, and experimentation.
3. It introduces you to careers that will have strong job growth.
MIS: What are cost-effective business applications of Facebook and Twitter or whatever will soon appear?
Staying ahead of the crowd by adopting new technologies
MIS: How can Intro to MIS help you learn nonroutine skills?
By analyzing and creating charts based on business processes and developing an understanding of systems both individually and in a group.
IS: What is an information system?
A group of components that interact to produce information.
MIS: What is MIS?
MIS is the management and use of information systems that help businesses achieve their strategies.
MIS: Management and use of information systems
Develop, maintain, and adapt the system to make use easier and more productive
Asking yourself questions about when to use a certain information system and the benefits/downfalls of that system at any point.
IS: Why is the difference between information technology and information systems important to you?
The difference is important because with information everywhere these days and technologies to help spread and understand it, information systems are useful in nearly every aspect of life whether it be school or social relationships or jobs or even entertainment.
IS: Five Component Framework/ IS components
IS: What is your role in IS security?
Making sure I protect and use the IS data in the right manner
don't write it down or share it
Process quality can be measured in two dimensions: process effectiveness and process efficiency. An effective business process is one that enables the organization to accomplish its strategy.
Using information systems to improve process quality.
Information: What Is Information?
Knowledge derived from data, where data is defined as recorded facts or figures
Data presented in a meaningful context
Processed data, or data processed by summing, ordering, averaging, grouping, comparing, or other similar operations
A difference that makes a difference
Information: Where is information?
In our heads, we must conceive it ourselves after observing data.
Information: What Data Characteristics Are Necessary for Quality Information?
Accurate - Correct and complete, crucial for management, can cross-check information to ensure accuracy
Timely - Produced in time for intended use
Relevant - To context and subject
Just sufficient - For purpose it is generated, avoids too much or extraneous information
Worth its cost - Relationship between cost and value; information systems cost money to develop, maintain, and use; must be worth that cost
BPM: Why do Business Processes need Management?
Processes are dynamic and often need to be changed
Improve process quality
Change in technology
Change in business fundamentals
Changes in Business Fundamentals
Market (e.g., new customer category, change in customer characteristics)
Company organization (e.g., merger, acquisition)
BPM:business process management ( BPM)
a cyclical process for systematically creating, assessing, and altering business processes.
Cycle begins by creating models of business processes.
Usually teams build an as-is model that documents the current situation.
IS:How does organizational strategy determine information systems requirements?
organizations examine the structure of their industry and, from that, develop a competitive strategy. That strategy determines value chains, which, in turn, determine business processes
Forces: What five forces determine industry structure?
1.Competition from vendors of substitutes
2.Competition from new competitors
3.Competition from existing rivals
-Bargaining Power Forces
4.Bargaining power of suppliers
5.Bargaining power of customers
Activities: Primary activities
business functions that reate directly to the production of the organization's products or services.
Outbound Logistics Sales
Marketing Customer Service
Activities: Support activities
business functions that assist and facilitate the primary activities.
Manage Supplier Relationships ( Procurement)
Investigate New Designs ( Technology)
Hire & Support Employees ( Human Resources)
Manage Company Resources ( Firm Infrastructure
interactions across value activities.
uses sales forecasts to plan production; it then uses the production plan to determine raw material needs and then uses the material needs to schedule purchases. The end result is just- in- time inventory, which reduces inventory sizes and costs.
determine:How does competitive strategy determine value chain structure?
A business with a differentiation strategy will add cost to an activity only as long as the activity has a positive margin-(The difference between the value that an activity generates and the cost of the activity)
determine: How do value chains determine business processes and information systems?
business processes implement value chains or portions of value chains. Thus, each value chain is supported by one or more business processes.
compete: switching costs
Organizations can lock in customers by making it difficult or expensive for customers to switch to another product.
compete:How does an actual company use IS to create competitive advantages?
By implementing competitive advantages using information systems to make all aspects of the business process work efficiently and easily for every person in the process
CPU:What do business professionals need to know about computer hardware?
hardware consists of electronic components and related gadgetry that input, process, output, and store data according to instructions ¬encoded in computer programs or software.
desktops, laptops, phones, iPads and other slates, Xbox and other games, etc.
CPU:What is the difference between a client and a server?
Server-side refers to operations that are performed by the server in a client-server relationship in computer networking. Typically, a server is a software program, such as a web server, that runs on a remote server, reachable from a user's local computer or workstation.
Client-side refers to operations that are performed by the client in a client-server relationship in a computer network. Typically, a client is a computer application, such as a web browser, that runs on a user's local computer or workstation and connects to a server as necessary.
CPU: What do business professionals need to know about operating systems software??
OPERATING SYSTEM/CLIENT: Programs that control the client computer's resources
OPERATING SYSTEM/SERVER: Programs that control the server computer's resources
APPLICATION PROGRAMS/CLIENT: Applications that are processed on client computers
APPLICATION PROGRAMS/SERVER: Applications that are processed on server computers
the process by which one computer hosts the appearance of many computers.
CPU: Virtualization types
1) PC virtualization: able to use the same software to run both iOS and Windows 8, for example
2) Server virtualization: able to log on to two computers and have the same server, Follett for example
3) Desktop virtualization: able to acess the same server and desktop operating systems from any device
applications software Categories:
Horizontal- market: provides capabilities common across all organizations and industries. Examples: Word, Excell.
Vertical- market: serves the needs of a specific industry. can be altered or customized. Example: Kathari's ortho application software on the computers in this office.
One- of- a- kind: developed for a specific, unique need. Examples: IRS system, specific mobile apps like Vangaurds.
Applications software subcategories:
Applications that process code on both the client and the server are called client-server applications.
Thick-client application: is an application program that must be preinstalled on the client. Example: Microsoft office
Thin-client application: is one that runs within a browser and does not need to be preinstalled. Example: Microsoft word
which is software that runs on top of the operating system and performs particular services and functions.
application software: How do organizations acquire application software?
By buying off-the-shelf software, off-the-shelf with alterations software, or tailor-made. Tailor-made software is called custom- developed software.
application software: firmware
Firmware is computer software that is installed into devices such as printers, print servers, and various types of communication devices. (becomes a part of computers memory)
DBMS: open source
Open source succeeds because of collaboration. A programmer examines the source code(code written and understood by users) and identifies a need or project that seems interesting. He or she then creates a new feature, redesigns or reprograms an existing feature, or fixes a known problem. That code is then sent to others in the open source project who then evaluate the quality and merits of the work and add it to the product, if appropriate.
DBMS: open source viable?
Whether open source works for a particular situation depends on the requirements and constraints of that situation and the users that are editing and creating the software.
DBMS: Relationships among rows
Values in one table relate rows of that table to rows in a second table. Example: Primary key and foreign key in SQL
Metadata are data that describe data. Example: SQL page with "Field Name", "Data Type", and "Description"
DBMS: What is a database management system (DBMS)?
a program used to create, process, and ad-minister a database. As with operating systems, almost no organization develops its own DBMS. Example: SQL
DBMS: How do database applications make databases more useful?
A database application is a collection of forms, reports, queries, and application programs that process a database.
Use a query to find or operate on the data in your tables. With a query, you can display the records that match certain criteria (e.g. all the members called "Barry"), sort the data as you please (e.g. by First name), and even combine data from different tables.
These are screens for displaying data from and inputting data into your tables. The basic form has an appearance similar to an index card: it shows only one record at a time, with a different field on each line.
Reports are for output. Anything you plan to print deserves a report, whether it is a list of names and addresses, a financial summary for a period, or a set of mailing labels.
Internet: Connecting to the Internet
actually connecting to an Internet service provider (ISP) which:
Provides you with a legitimate Internet address.
Serves as your gateway to the Internet. (The ISP re-ceives the communications from your computer and passes them on to the Internet, and it receives communications from the Internet and passes them on to you.)
They collect money from their customers and pay access fees and other charges on your behalf.
Internet: Why is the cloud the future for most organizations?
Easy to control, access, limit storage of data. Can hold massive amounts. Available anywhere from any device
Small capital requirements
Superior flexibility and adaptability to growing or fluctuating demand
Known cost structure
Possibly best-of-breed security/disaster preparedness
Industry-wide economies of scale, hence cheaper
Control of data location
In-depth visibility of security and disaster preparedness
Dependency on vendor
Loss of control over data location
Little visibility into true security and disaster preparedness capabilities.
Significant capital required
Significant cant development effort
Annual maintenance costs
Ongoing support costs
Staff and train personnel
Increased management requirements
Difficult to accommodate fluctuating demand
mobile native application (Thick)
is a thick-client application that is designed to work with a particular operating system, and sometimes even designed to work only with a particular mobile device that runs that operating system.
mobile: mobile browser based mobile apps:
is a thin client application that provides a consistent environment for the application; the details of operating systems and hardware are handled by the browser's code and hidden from the application.
mobile: Developing native mobile applications
Developed using serious, heavy-duty, professional programming languages. very complex to create but not as complex to use.
very secure. only run on the operating system for which they are programmed.
many workers who specialize in different skills.
mobile: Developing thin-client mobile applications
Run inside a browser such as Firefox or Chrome.
very easy to use and create. l
imited by the capabilities of the browser.
are unable to support very specialized and complex applications.
run on any operating system and mobile device. doesn't take many workers.
mobile: Advantages of employee use of mobile systems at work. Advantages:
Greater employee satisfaction,
Reduced need for training,
Reduced support costs.
mobile: Disadvantages employee use of mobile systems at work.:
Data loss or damage,
Loss of control,
Risk of infection,
Greater support costs.
IS department functions
Plan the use of IS to accomplish organizational goals and strategy.
Manage outsourcing relationships.
Protect information assets.
Develop, operate, and maintain the organization's computing infrastructure.
Develop, operate, and maintain applications.
IS: Align information systems with organizational strategy
for maximum and best results of the IS, developers must make sure information systems are aligned with the organization's competitive strategy.
is the representative for IS and IT issues within the executive staff. The CIO provides the IS perspective during discussions of problem solutions, proposals, and new initiatives. Example: when considering a merger, it is important that the company consider integration of information systems in the merged entities.
CIO must ensure that priorities consistent with the overall organizational strategy are developed and then communicated to the IS department. At the same time, the CIO must also ensure that the department evaluates proposals and projects for using new technology in light of those communicated priorities.
is a group of senior managers from the major business functions that works with the CIO to set the IS priorities and decide among major IS projects and alternatives.
CIO: steering committee meetings
are an important communication function between IS and the users.
IS department sets up the steering committee's schedule and agenda and conducts the meetings. Meetings allow for discussion of potential IS initiatives and provide a forum for users to express their needs, frustrations, and other issues with the IS department.
Outsourcing information systems
Avoid management problems.
Free management time.
Obtain part-time services.
Gain economies of scale.
Cap financial exposure.
Reduce implementation risk.
Hardware: IaaS cloud hosting
Software: Licensed software/Outsourced
People: Business function
Loss of control:
Vendor in driver's seat.
Potential loss of intellectual capital.
Product fixes, enhancements in wrong priority.
Vendor management, direction, or identity changes.
CIO superfluous (unnecessary)?
Benefits outweighed by long-term costs:
High unit cost, forever.
Paying for someone else's mismanagement.
In time, outsource vendor is de facto sole source.
May not get what you pay for but don't know it.
No easy exit:
Critical knowledge in minds of vendors, not employees.
Expensive and risky to change vendors.
outsourcing: Your user rights.
Computer hardware and programs that allow you to perform your job proficiently
Reliable network and Internet connections
A secure computing environment
Protection from viruses, worms, and other threats
Contribute to requirements for new system features and functions
Reliable systems development and maintenance
Prompt attention to problems, concerns, and complaints
Properly prioritized problem fixes and resolutions
outsourcing: Your user responsibilities.
Learn basic computer skills
Learn standard techniques and procedures for the applications you use
Follow security and backup procedures
Protect your password(s)
Use computers and mobile devices according to your employer's computer use policy
Make no unauthorized hardware modifications
Install only authorized programs
Apply software patches and fixes when directed to do so
Respond completely to requests for requirements for new system features and functions
Avoid reporting trivial problems
IS security threat/loss
A threat is a person or organization that seeks to obtain or alter data or other assets illegally, without the owner's permission and often without the owner's knowledge.
A vulnerability is an opportunity for threats to gain access to individual or organizational assets.
A safeguard is some measure that individuals or organizations take to block the threat from obtaining the asset.(some threats achieve their goal despite safeguards).
A target is the asset that is desired by the threat.
IS security threat/loss sources
Human error, Computer crime, Natural disasters
IS security loss types
Unauthorized data disclosure: a threat obtains data that is supposed to be protected
Incorrect data modification: can occur through human error when employees follow procedures incorrectly or when procedures have been designed incorrectly.
Faulty service: problems that result because of incorrect system operation.
Denial of service: Caused by human error in following procedures or a lack of procedures. results in a failure of the system. Examples: running a computationally intensive app that shuts down a Web server or corporate gateway router. Hackers sending millions of fake requests to occupy a server.
Loss of infrastructure: stolen equipment, broken equipment from human error or terrorism, broken equipment from a natural disaster
IS security goal
to find an appropriate trade- off between the risk of loss and the cost of implementing safeguards.
IS security threats: business
address two critical security functions: security policy and risk management. response
IS security threats: safeguards
Technical safeguards involve the hardware and software components of an information system.
Can protect against security threats by implementing an Identification and authentication process, Encrypting data, Setting up Firewalls, Using Malware protection, and designing secure apps.
IS security threats: Technical safeguards
Identification and authentication
Identification: user enters name to identify themselves
Authentication: user enters password to authenticate themselves.
Single sign-on for multiple systems
Today's operating systems have the capability to allow the user to be identified and authenticated after only the initial sign-in and does not require multiple sign-in processes.
Encryption is the process of transforming clear text into coded, unintelligible text for secure storage or communication.
A computing device that prevents unauthorized network access.
Can be a special-purpose computer or a program on a general-purpose computer or on a router.
Malware is viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spyware, and adware.
IS security threats: Malware types
A virus is a computer program that replicates itself. The program code that causes unwanted or harmful activity is called the payload.
Trojan horses are viruses that masquerade as useful programs or files.
A worm is a virus that propagates using the Internet or other computer network.
Spyware programs are installed on the user's computer without the user's knowledge or permission.
Adware is similar to spyware but it watches user activity and produce pop-up ads.
IS security threats: data safeguards
Data safeguards protect databases and other organizational data.
Data administration refers to an organization-wide function that is in charge of developing data policies and enforcing data standards.
Database administration refers to a function that pertains to a particular database.
Both data and database administration establish safeguards such as: Define data policies, Data rights and responsibilities, Rights enforced by user accounts authenticated by passwords, Data encryption, Backup and recovery procedures, Physical security.
IS security threats: Human safeguards
Human safeguards involve the people and procedure components of information systems. In general, human safeguards result when authorized users follow appropriate procedures for system use and recovery.
IS security threats: Human safeguards for employees
Human safeguards for employees
Position definitions: should provide a separation of duties and authorities.
Hiring and screening: interview potential employees.
Dissemination and Enforcement: make employees aware of their security policies, procedures, and responsibilities.
Termination: discontinue access to company records, infrastructure, etc and remove passwords and accounts and encryption keys from employee
another important human safeguard. Consists of account management, password management, and help desk policies regarding sensitive information that could cause a security issue.
IS security threats: Systems procedures
Procedures of each type should exist for each information system. The definition and use of standardized procedures reduces the likelihood of computer crime and other malicious activity by insiders. It also ensures that the system's security policy is enforced.
Number of transistors per square inch on an integrated chip doubles every 18 months
-Speed of computer chip increases in proportion to density of transistors
-Price/performance ratio falls dramatically
Moore's law allows _______ to exist
-Youtube, iPhone, Facebook, Second Life, Pandora, Twitter
Jobs: How Can I Attain Job Security?
Knowledge and skills are your job security
Ability to cope with rapid technological change
Develop non-routine cognitive skills and ability
Jobs: Why is there no such thing as Job Security?
There is no job security, no secure investments and no security in Social Security. Your only job security is a marketable skill and courage to use it.
Rapid technological change and increased international competition spotlight non-routine cognitive skills and the ability to adapt to changing technology and shifting demand
Students need to develop strong non-routine cognitive skills and the ability to cope with rapid technological change.
4 Important non-routine Skills (Reich's skills)
Abstract Reasoning (Ability to undergo the process of constructing a model or representation)
Systems Thinking (Ability to model system components, connect inputs and outputs among components to reflect structure and dynamics of system observed)
Collaboration (Activity of two or more people working together to achieve a common goal, result, or work product)
Ability to experiment (Make reasoned analysis of an opportunity; developing and evaluating possible solutions)
Information Technologies (IT)
Passwords: Rules for Strong Passwords
Ten or more characters
Do not include: username, real name, or company name
Do not use a complete diction word in any language
Contains both upper- and lowercase letters, numbers, and special characters
Network of activities for accomplishing a business function. Such as: buying & managing inventory, making sales to customers, paying bills, collecting revenue, and hundreds of other business functions.
BPM: Business Model and Notation (BPMN)
a graphical representation for specifying business processes in a business process model.
BPM: swimlane format
which is a graphical arrangement in which all of the activities for a given role are shown in a single vertical or horizontal lane.
Rectangle with plus=sub process
Dashed line= data flow
Solid line=sequence flow
BPM: Components of a Business Process
Activities- Transform resources and information of one type into another type
Decisions- A question that can be answered Yes or No
Roles- Set of procedures
Resources- People, facilities, or computer programs assigned to roles
Repository- Collection of business records
BPM: How Can Information Systems Improve Process Quality?
Dimension of Process Quality
(Business process enables organization to accomplish its strategy.)
Efficiency (Ratio of benefits to costs, Costs - time and infrastructure)
IS: Most Important Part of Any Information System
Quality of your thinking, your ability to conceive information from data, determined by your cognitive skills
Information is value you add to information systems.
BPM: 4 Stages of Business Process Management
1.Create a model (Usually teams build an as- is model that documents the current situation)
2.Create Process Components
4. Assess Results
BPM: COBIT ( Control Objectives for Information and related Technology)
a set of standard practices that are often used in the assessment stage of the BPM cycle.
IS: Information system (IS)
is the study of complementary networks of hardware and software (see information technology) that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and distribute data
BPM VS. IS:Business Processes vs Information Systems
Business processes and information systems are not the same thing. Information systems have the five components as you know by now. Business processes have actors, roles, activities, etc. They overlap, but their purpose and components are different.
BPM VS. IS: Which Comes First, Business Processes or Information Systems?
In theory, it is better to start with business processes. business processes are closer to the organization's competitive strategy and other goals and objectives. Starting with processes and working toward systems is more likely to result in processes and systems that are aligned with the organization's strategy and direction.
In practice, however, the answer is not clear. Organizations today take both approaches. Sometimes the same organization takes one approach with one set of processes and systems and a second approach with a different set.
applications: Off-the-shelf software
Start with business processes and select application that works for those processes, application includes features and functions needed by future business processes.
Better to begin with processes, if likely to use licensed application.
IS: A role
is a subset of the activities in a business process that is performed by an actor
a person, group, department, or organization.
a collection of data that is stored within the business process. Repositories can be computer databases, or they can be collections of files in the cloud ( think on the Internet for now), or they can be printed records stored in a file cabinet or a shoebox.
Porter's five forces
1.Competition from vendors of substitutes
2.Competition from new competitors
3.Competition from existing rivals
Bargaining Power Forces:
4. Bargaining power of suppliers
5. Bargaining power of customers
Porter's five forces model
to help organizations determine the potential profitability of an industry. Over the years, this model has been applied for another purpose: As a way of understanding organizations' competitive environments.
Porter's four competitive strategies
Industry-wide Cost: Lowest cost across the industry
Industry-wide Differentiation: Better product/service across the industry
Focus Cost: Lowest cost within an industry segment
Focus Differentiation: Better product/service within an industry segment
A value chain
is a network of value- creating activities. That generic chain consists of five primary activities and four support activities. Value chain analysis is most easily understood in the context of manufacturing.
Competitive Advantage Product Implementations
1. Create a new product or service
2. Enhance products or services
3. Differentiate products or services
Competitive Advantage Process Implementations
4. Lock in customers and buyers
5. Lock in suppliers
6. Raise barriers to market entry
7. Establish alliances
8. Reduce costs
Competitive advantage: How Do Information Systems Provide Competitive Advantages?
Organizations gain a competitive advantage by creating new products or services, by enhancing existing products or services, and by differentiating their products and services from those of their competitors.
Lock in customers by creating high switching costs.
Make it easy for suppliers to connect to and work with your organization.
Alliances establish standards, promote product awareness and needs, develop market size, reduce purchasing costs, and provide other benefits.
Create better business processes to reduce costs.
An information system can be part of a product or can provide support for a product or service.
consists of electronic components and related gadgetry that input, process, output, and store data according to instructions encoded in computer programs or software.
CPU:input hardware devices
are the keyboard, mouse, document scanners, and bar- code ( Universal Product Code) scanners like those used in grocery stores. Microphones and cameras are also input devices; with tablet PCs, human handwriting can be input as well.
CPU:central processing unit ( CPU)
Processing device, which is sometimes called " the brain" of the computer. vary in speed, function, and cost.
reads data and instructions from memory, and it stores results of computations in main memory.
consists of video displays, printers, audio speakers, overhead projectors, and other special- purpose devices, such as large flatbed plotters.
saves data and programs.
by far the most common stor-age device, although optical disks such as CDs and DVDs also are popular. Thumb drives are small, portable magnetic storage devices that can be used to back up data and to transfer it from one computer to another. In large corporate data centers, data is sometimes stored on magnetic tape.
bit: binary digits, called bits.
A bit is either a zero or a one. Bits are used for computer data because they are easy to represent physically. A switch can be either closed or open. A computer can be designed so that an open switch rep-resents zero and a closed switch represents one.
CPU:How does a CPU Work?
The CPU is the major actor. To run a program or process data, the computer first transfers the program or data from disk to main memory. Then, to execute an instruction, it moves the instruction from main memory into the CPU via the data channel or bus. The CPU has a small amount of very fast memory called a cache. The CPU keeps frequently used instructions in the cache. Having a large cache makes the computer faster, but the cache is expensive.
CPU: operating system ( OS)
a program that controls the computer's resources. For example, no personal computer has enough memory to hold all of the code in Microsoft Word, Excel, and Access. Consequently, the CPU loads programs into memory in chunks.
CPU: memory swapping.
If there is not enough memory, the CPU will remove something, perhaps the block of memory labeled More Excel, and then it will place the just- requested program or data into the vacated space
CPU: The cache and main memory are volatile
meaning their contents are lost when power is off.
CPU: Magnetic and optical disks are nonvolatile
meaning their contents sur-vive when power is off. If you suddenly lose power, the contents of unsaved memory— say, doc-uments that have been altered— will be lost.
Database: What Is the Purpose of a Database?
The purpose of a database is to help people keep track of things. lists that involve data with multiple themes require a database.
In databases, bytes are grouped into columns, such as Student Number and Student Name. Columns are also called fields. Columns or fields, in turn, are grouped into rows, which are also called records.
is a self- describing collection of integrated records as well as a collection of tables plus relationships among the rows in those tables, plus special data, called metadata, that describes the structure of the database.
database: Primary Key
is a column or group of columns that identifies a unique row in a table.
databases that carry their data in the form of tables and that represent relationships using foreign keys
database: what does self- describing mean?
It means that a database contains, within itself, a description of its contents. Think of a library. A library is a a library.A library is a self- describing collection of books and other materials. It is self describing because the library contains a catalog that describes the library's contents.
DBMS: Database Management System ( DBMS)
a program used to create, process, and administer a database. As with operating systems, almost no organization develops its own DBMS. Instead, companies license DBMS products from vendors such as IBM, Microsoft, Oracle, and others.
DBMS: Popular DBMS products are
DB2 from IBM, Access and SQL Server from Microsoft, and Oracle Database from the Oracle Corporation and MYSQL
an open source DBMS product that is license- free for most applications.
DBMS provides applications for four processing operations:
or delete data.
DBMS: Structured Query Language ( SQL)
is an international standard language for process-ing a database. All five of the DBMS products mentioned earlier accept and process SQL
DBMS: Database administration
involves a wide variety of activities. For example, the DBMS can be used to set up a security system involving user accounts, passwords, permissions, and limits for processing the database. Also include backing up database data, adding structures to improve the performance of database applications, removing data that are no longer wanted or needed, and similar tasks.
DBMS: database application
a collection of forms, reports, queries, and application programs that process a database. A database that process a database. A database may have one or more applications, and each application may have one or more users.
DBMS: Application Programs
process logic that is specific to a given business need.
enables database processing over the Internet. For this use, the application program serves as an intermediary between the Web server and the database.
DBMS: Multi-user processing
used by several people concurrently; opposite of single-user. Unix is an example of a multi-user operating system, whereas most (but not all) versions of Microsoft Windows are intended to support only one user at a time.
DBMS: lost update problem
An error condition in which one user's data changes are overwritten by another user's data changes. Same as lost update problem.
DBMS: How to prevent Lost update
some type of locking must be used to coordinate the activities of users who know nothing about one another.
products process large organizational and workgroup databases.
These products support many, possibly thousands, of users and many different database applications.
Such DBMS products support 24/ 7 operations and can manage databases that span dozens of different magnetic disks with hundreds of gigabytes or more of data.
IBM's DB2, Microsoft's SQL Server, and Oracle's Oracle Database are examples of enterprise DBMS products.
products are designed for smaller, simpler database applications.
Such products are used for personal or small workgroup applications that involve fewer than 100 users, and normally fewer than 15.
In fact, the great bulk of databases in this category have only a single user.
The professor's Student database is an example of a database that is processed by a personal DBMS product.
DBMS: NoSQL DBMS.
This term refers to software systems that support very high transaction rates, processing relatively simple data structures, replicated on many servers in the cloud.
Motivations for this approach include simplicity of design, horizontal scaling and finer control over availability.
DBMS: NoSQL DBMS examples
DBMS: Will NoSQL Replace Relational DBMS Products?
Probably not. Such conversion would be enormously expensive and disruptive, and in cases where the relational database meets the organization's needs, would also be unnecessary.
NoSQL DBMS products are very technical and can be used only by those with a deep background in computer science.
Internet: computer network
a collection of computers that communicate with one another over transmission lines or wirelessly.
Internet: local area network ( LAN)
connects computers that reside in a single geographic location on the premises of the company that operates the LAN. The number of connected computers can range from two to several hundred. The distinguishing characteristic of a LAN is a single location.
an organization can place communications lines wherever it wants, because all lines reside on its premises.
Internet: wide area network ( WAN)
connects computers at different geographic locations. The computers in two separated company sites must be connected using a WAN.
A company with offices in Chicago and Atlanta cannot run a wire down the freeway to connect computers in the two cities. Instead, the company contracts with a communications vendor that is licensed by the government and that already has lines or has the authority to run new lines between the two cities.
Internet: LAN vs. WAN
To illustrate, the computers for a College of Business located on a single campus can be connected via a LAN. The computers for a College of Business located on multiple campuses must be connected via a WAN.
Internet: An internet
is a network of networks. Internets connect LANs, WANs, and other internets.
Internet: "the Internet" ( with an uppercase letter I ),
the collection of networks that you use when you send email or access a Web site. In addition to the Internet, private networks of networks, called internets, also exist.
A private internet that is used exclusively within an organization
is a set of rules that programs on two communicating devices follow. Provides seamless flow between networks.
Internet: small office or a home office ( SOHO)
such LANs have fewer than a dozen or so computers and printers. Many businesses, of course, operate LANs that are much larger than this one.
LAN devices are usually provided by the phone or cable vendor. They have many different names, depending on the brand.
when you connect your SOHO LAN, phone, iPad, or Kin-dle to the Internet, you are connecting to a WAN.
connection: a switch
which is a special- purpose computer that receives and transmits wired traffic on the LAN.
When either of these two computers connected to the switch communicates with each other or with printer 1, it does so by sending the traffic over wires to the switch, which redirects the traffic to the other computer or printer 1.
connection: LAN device is a small computer that contains the following networking components.
1) It has a switch it also has a device for wireless communication
2) devices for connecting to a WAN and via the WAN to the Internet.
connection: network interface card ( NIC)
Each wired computer or printer on the LAN has one.
A device that connects the computer's or printer's circuitry to the network wires.
The NIC works with programs in each device to implement the protocols necessary for communication.
connection: onboard NIC
which is a NIC built into the computer's circuitry.
connection: The computers, printers, and the switches on a wired LAN are connected using one of two wired media:
unshielded twisted pair ( UTP) cable
optical fiber cables
connection: unshielded twisted pair ( UTP) cable
Most LAN connections are made using ________
This cable contains sets of wires that are twisted together to improve signal quality.
connection: optical fiber cables
if the connection carries a lot of traffic, the UTP cable may be replaced by a ________
The signals on such cables are light rays, and they are reflected inside the glass core of the optical fiber cable.
connection: Practical wired connection of LANs
Typically, in a building with several floors, a switch is placed on each floor, and the computers on that floor are connected to the switch with a UTP cable. The switches on each floor are connected to each other via the faster- speed optical fiber cable.
connection: wireless NIC ( WNIC)
a device that connects the computer's or printer's circuitry to the network wires. The NIC works with programs in each device to implement the protocols necessary for communication.
Today, nearly all personal computers ship from the factory with an onboard WNIC.
connection: access point
the WNIC devices connect to an _________
The component of the LAN device that processes wireless traffic and communicates with the wired switch.
With this design every device on the LAN, whether wired or wireless, can communicate with every other device.
Internet: Wireless Vs. Wired LANs
Wireless devices communicate to each other via the access point.
If wireless devices need to connect to a wired device, they do so via the access point, then to the switch, and then to the wired devices.
Similarly, wired devices communicate to each other via the switch.
If the wired devices need to connect to wireless ones, they do so via the switch, then to the access point, and then to the wireless devices.
Internet: LAN Protocols
1.IEEE 802.3 (Wired LAN,10/100/1000 Mbps, Ethernet)
2.IEEE 802.11 (Wireless LAN, 802.11n, Bluetooth)
Internet: IEEE 802.3 protocol
is used for wired LAN connections.
This protocol standard, also called Ethernet, specifies hardware characteristics, such as which wire carries which signals.
It also describes how messages are to be packaged and processed for wired transmission over the LAN.
Internet: 10/ 100/ 1000 Ethernet
The NICs in most personal computers today support what is called _________
These products conform to the 802.3 specification and allow for transmission at a rate of 10, 100, or 1,000 Mbps ( megabits per second).
Switches detect the speed that a given device can handle and communicate with it at that speed.
Dell, Lenovo advertise this speed
Today, speeds of up to 1 Gbps are possible on wired LANs.
Internet: Bits vs. Bytes
communications speeds are expressed in bits, whereas memory sizes are expressed in bytes.
Internet: IEEE 802.11 protocol.
Wireless LAN connections use the _______
version of 802.11
allows speeds of up to 600 Mbps.
is another common wireless protocol.
It is designed for transmitting data over short distances, replacing cables.
Some devices, such as wireless mice and keyboards, use Blue-tooth to connect to the computer.
Smartphones use Bluetooth to connect to automobile entertainment systems
Internet service provider ( ISP)
When you connect to the Internet, you are actually connecting to an______
Internet: 3 Internet service provider Functions
-First, it provides you with a legitimate Internet address. -Second, it serves as your gateway to the Internet. The ISP receives the communications from your computer and passes them on to the Internet, and it receives communications from the Internet and passes them on to you.
-Third, ISPs pay for the Internet. They collect money from their customers and pay access fees and other charges on your behalf.
Internet: SOHO LANs and individual home and office computers are commonly connected to an ISP in one of three ways:
1) a special telephone line called a DSL line
2) a cable TV line
3) a wireless- phone- like connection.
Each of these alternatives uses its own, special protocol.
connection: digital subscriber line ( DSL)
provides an Internet connection that uses the same lines as voice telephones, but they operate so that their signals do NOT interfere with voice telephone service.
connection: Cable lines
provide high- speed data transmission using cable television lines. The cable com-pany installs a fast, high capacity optical fiber cable to a distribution center in each neighborhood that it serves. At the distribution center, the optical fiber cable connects to regular cable television cables that run to subscribers' homes or businesses. Cables operate in such a way that their signals do not.
At the maximum, users can download data up to 50 Mbps and can upload data at 512 Kbps. Typically, performance is much lower than this.
connection: WAN wireless connection
Amazon. com's Kindle, for example, uses a Sprint, Verizon, and other wireless networks to provide wireless data connections.
WAN wireless provides an average performance of 500 Kbps, with peaks of up to 1.7 Mbps, as opposed to the typical 50 Mbps for LAN wireless.
lines typically have transmission speeds less than 56 Kbps
connection: Broadband lines
have speeds in excess of 256 Kbps. Today, all popular communication technologies provide broadband capability, and so these terms are likely to fade from use.
IP: TCP/ IP Protocol architecture
The protocols used on the Internet are arranged according to a structure known as the __________, which is a scheme of five protocol types arranged in layers.
IP: TCP/IP protocol Layers
the top layer concerns protocols for applications like browsers and Web servers.
The next two layers concern protocols about data communications across any internet ( note the small i; this means any network of networks), including the Internet.
The bottom two layers involve protocols that concern data transmission within a network. For example, the IEEE 802.3 and 802.11 LAN protocols operate at the bottom two layers.
IP: 3 common TCP/ IP application- layer protocols
2.SMTP or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (is used for email transmissions ( along with other protocols as well)).
3.FTP or File Transfer Protocol
IP: HTTP protocol
The protocol used between browsers and Web servers. When you use a browser such as Internet Explorer, Safari, or Chrome, you are using a program that implements the HTTP protocol.
Your browser sends requests for service encoded in a predefined HTTP request format; the server receives that request, does something, and formats a response in a predefined HTTP response format.
a secure version of HTTP
IP: HTTP VS. HTTPS
Whenever you see https in your browser's address bar, you have a secure transmission, and you can safely send sensitive data like credit card numbers. When you are on the Internet, if you do not see https, then you should assume that all of your communication is open and could be published on the front page of your campus newspaper tomorrow morning.
IP: FTP or File Transfer Protocol
used to move files over the Internet. One very common use for FTP is to maintain Web sites. When a Web site administrator wishes to post a new picture or story on a Web server, the administrator will often use FTP to move the picture or other item to the server.
There is a secure version
Internet: Web VS Internet
You are using the Internet when you use any of these protocols. However, you are using the Web only when you use either HTTP or HTTPS.
Web: the Web
is the Internet- based network of browsers and servers that process HTTP or HTTPS.
IP: TCP, or the Transmission Control Protocol
The most important protocol in the transport layer is________
These protocols manage traffic as it passes across an internet ( including the Internet) from one network to another.
IP: How does TCP work?
is that TCP programs break your traffic up into pieces and send each piece along its way.
It then works with TCP programs on other devices in the internet to ensure that all of the pieces arrive at their destination.
If one or more pieces are lost or damaged, TCP programs detect that condition and cause retransmission of that piece. Hence, the TCP layer is said to provide reliable internet transport.
IP: IP ( Internet Protocol)
The primary protocol of the Internet layer
specifies the routing of the pieces of your message through the networks that comprise any internet ( including the Internet).
IP: A packet
is a piece of a message that is handled by programs that implement IP.
IP: A router
is a special- purpose computer that moves packet traffic according to the rules of the IP protocol.
IP: How does IP work?
Your message is broken into packets and each packet is sent out onto the Internet.
The packet contains the address of where it is supposed to go.
Routers along the way receive the packet, examine the destination IP address, and send it either to the desired destination, or to another router that is closer to the desired destination.
IP: An IP address
is a number that identifies a particular device.
IP: Public IP addresses
identify a particular device on the public Internet.
controlled by a public agency known as ICANN ( Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers).
IP: Private IP addresses
identify a particular device on a private network, usually on a LAN. Their assignment is controlled within the LAN.
IP: Functions of the LAN Device
• Switch processing IEEE 802.3 wired LAN traffic
• Access- point processing IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN traffic
• Translation between IEEE 802.3 and IEEE 802.11
• Modem converting between analog and digital
• Server that assigns private IP addresses
• Private/ public IP address translation converting between private and public IP addresses
• Internet router routing packets
IP: IP addresses have two formats
1. IPv4, The most common form, has a four- decimal dotted notation like 18.104.22.168;
2. IPv6, Because it is longer, can allow for millions of more IP addresses than IPv4.
connection: virtual private network ( VPN)
uses the Internet to create the appearance of private point-to- point connections.
VPN communications are secure, even though they are transmitted over the public Internet they are often encrypted.
offer the benefit of point- to- point leased lines, and they enable remote access, both by employees and by any others who have been registered with the VPN server.
connection: How does a VPN work?
VPN software on the remote user's computer establishes a connection with the VPN server in Chicago. The VPN client and VPN server then have a point- to- point connection. That connection, called a tunnel, is a virtual, private pathway over a public or shared network from the VPN client to the VPN server.
Web: three- tier architecture
Almost all ecommerce applications use the________
which is an arrangement of user computers and servers into three categories, or tiers.
Web: The user tier
consists of computers, phones, and other devices that have browsers that request and process Web pages.
Web: The server tier
consists of computers that run Web servers and process application programs.
Web: The database tier
consists of computers that run a DBMS that processes requests to retrieve and store data.
are programs that run on a server tier computer and that manage HTTP traffic by sending and receiving Web pages to and from clients.
Web: A commerce server
is an application program that runs on a server- tier computer. A commerce server receives requests from users via the Web server, takes some action, and returns a response to the users via the Web server. Typical commerce server functions are to obtain product data from a database, manage the items in a shopping cart, and coordinate the checkout process.
Web sites usually are supported by several or even many Web server computers in a facility called a Web farm. Work is distributed among the computers in a Web farm so as to minimize customer delays.
Web: Hypertext Markup Language ( HTML)
is the most common language for defining the structure and layout of Web pages.
Web: An HTML tag
is a notation used to define a data element for display or other purposes.
Web pages include hyperlinks, which are pointers to other Web pages. A hyperlink con-tains the URL of the Web page to find when the user clicks the hyperlink. The URL can reference a page on the server that generated the page containing the hyperlink, or it can reference a page on another server.
This tag has an attribute, which is a variable used to provide properties about a tag. Not all tags have attributes, but many do.
The attribute for a hyperlink is href, and its value indicates which Web page is to be displayed when the user clicks the link.
Cloud: The cloud
is the elastic leasing of pooled computer resources that are accessed via Internet protocols.
The term cloud is used because most early diagrams of three- tier and other Internet- based systems used a cloud symbol to represent the Internet, and organizations came to view their infrastructure as being " somewhere in the cloud."
the amount of resources leased can be increased or decreased dynamically, programmatically, in a short span of time and that organizations pay for just the resources that they use.
because many different organizations use the same physical hardware; they share that hardware through virtualization.
Cloud: Why Now?
Technology now supports construction and use of enormous data centers
Processors, data communication, data storage nearly free
Web farms providing virtual machine for about 1.5¢ per hour
Web service standards
that sit on top of HTTP and are used to specify how computers interoperate. The provider of a Web service, such as a cloud- hosting organization, uses these standards to specify the work that it will perform and how it will provide it.
Cloud: the private cloud
which is in-house hosting, delivered via Web service standards, that can be configured dynamically.
Cloud service: the three Cloud- based service categories
1. SaaS ( software as a service): Salesforce. com, iCloud, Office 365
2. PaaS ( platform as a service): Microsoft Azure, Oracle on Demand
3. IaaS ( infrastructure as a service): Amazon EC2 ( Elastic Cloud 2) Amazon S3 ( Simple Storage Service)
Cloud service: software as a service ( SaaS)
provides not only hardware infrastructure, but also an operating system and application programs on top of that hardware.
Cloud service: PaaS ( platform as a service)
where vendors provide hosted computers, an operating system, and possibly a DBMS.
Cloud service: IaaS ( infrastructure as a service
which is the cloud hosting of a bare server computer or disk drive.
mobile: What Are Mobile Systems?
Mobile systems are information systems that support users in motion. Mobile systems users access the system from any place: at home, at work, in the car, on the bus, or at the beach— using any smart device, such as smartphone, tablet, or PC. The possibilities are endless.
mobile: major elements in a mobile system
users in motion,
and cloud- based resources.
mobile: mobile device
is a small, lightweight, power- conserving, computing device that is capable of wireless connectivity. Almost all mobile devices have a display and some means for data entry.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Lecture test #1
COB 204- Final Exam
MGSC-300 Exam 1
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
COM 135 Exam 1
PHY 111 Final
ISA 235 Final Strouble
ISA 235 Strouble Final