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America in History 3 H First Test
Terms in this set (21)
Who was Harry S. Truman; describe his background and the type of president he was.
Harry Truman was originally a U.S. senator, but when Franklin Rooselvelt needed a vice president, Truman stepped up to the job. After FDR passed away, Truman became the 33rd president of the U.S. Even though Truman had almost zero experience with foreign policy, he still managed to end the war in the pacific. Truman was also president for the start of the cold war.
What was the Yalta conference; when did it occur and what took place there?
The Yalta conference was a meeting between the big 3, fdr, churchill, and stalin. In the meeting, these leaders finalized their plans for defeating germany and who would be in control of what military zones in germany after the end of the war. Poland's boundaries were also decided and they agreed to create a peaceful organization that grew into todays' United Nations. during the meeting, stalin had agreed to allow free elections but he later turned his back on that agreement.
What did Roosevelt's critics say about his handling of Stalin at Yalta and how did his defenders counter their argument?
Roosevelt's critics thought that he had made the wromg decison by agreeing to establish new boundaries for poland and by trusting stalin to go through with the agreement of having free elections in an stalin-occupied country. However, other people defended fdr and stated how the yalta meeting actually set restrictions on stalins plans for his large army.
Who were "The Big Three"?
Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin
Why did the US and the Soviet Union have "Mutual suspicions that were ancient, abundant and abiding"? Give specific examples.
The us and soviet had mutual suspicions because communism (soviets) and capitalism (u.s.) because both traditionally had hostile social philosophies. The soviets were skeptical of western europe because they had hesitated to open a western front when the soviets had suffered massive casualities fighting the germans on the eastern front.
What was Stalin's "vision" of a postwar world and what caused him to feel that way?
Stalin had a postwar vision of having friendly governments in the western soviet borders and to strongly have a soviet influence in the countries in eastern Europe. He wanted this in order to have a buffer between the soviets and western europe to avoid foreign conflict, and also to spread communism.
Why did America doubt that Soviet goals were "purely" defensive?
The western countries recalled how Bolshevik revolutionaries had called for world revolution also called for every country to become communist.
What was Franklin Roosevelt's "Wilsonian dream"?
Roosevelt that the postwar world could be an open world that was decolonized, demilitarized, and democratized with a strong U.N. to have global peace.
The US was largely "isolated" before WWII; why was the Soviet Union similarly "isolated"?
The us had been traditionally isolationist
Why was "some sort of confrontation... virtually unavoidable"? Give examples.
What was the "Atlantic Charter" and what was its purpose?
Identify the two major accomplishments that occurred at the Brenton Woods Conference of 1944 and explain what each was intended to do.
What was GATT? What year was it enacted and what was its intended purpose?
When did the first meeting of the United Nations occur; where was its permanent home established; how many nations were a party to it and how was it different from the former post WW1 League of Nations?
What is Bernard Baruch attempting to convey in presenting his plan for the future of Atomic energy to the United Nations? What was the outcome of his proposal?
Describe some of the early successes of the United Nations
What was the Nuremberg war crimes trial and what crimes were leveled at the accused? Why did some suggest that these trials were "judicial lynchings"?
How did some "American Hitler haters" and Russia in general want to punish postwar Germany and why did others seek a healthy, industrialized Germany at the end of the war?
What were the four military occupation zones at the end of WWII; who controlled them and what did they ultimately result in becoming?
Explain how the city of Berlin was divided among the allies and why its location was problematic for the western powers.
What did the Soviets do in 1948 to attempt to extricate the western powers from Berlin and how did the Americans respond? Was their response successful and if so when?
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