Chapter 31 and 32: Solar Systems: Period 4
Planets, Stars, and Galaxies
Terms in this set (32)
a measure of the attractive force exerted by an object
a regular, repeating path that an object in space follows around another
a stream of particles released by the sun
an object that orbits the sun but is too small to be considered a planet. Can range in diameter from one to 250 kilometers.
an object in space that is made mostly of ice and dust. Usually the size of an Earth mountain.
chunks of rock or dust broken off from a comet or asteroid
when prominences from different sunspot regions suddenly connect, releasing very large amounts of heat and light
large "loops" of gas that can be seen jumping up from groups of sunspots
essentially a giant, hot ball of gas. Stars generate light and heat through nuclear reactions.
a group of stars that, when seen from Earth, form a pattern.
a tool of astronomy in which the electromagnetic radiation (including visible light) produced by a star or other object (called its spectrum) is analyzed.
a star's brightness as observed from Earth
the brightness the star would have if it were a standard distance from Earth.
A huge repulsive force between the iron nuclei overcomes the force of gravity, causing a spectacular explosion to occur
A star with orbiting planets
a graph in which the temperature of the stars are plotted on the x-axis and
the absolute brightness is plotted on the y-axis.
a huge cloud of gas (mostly hydrogen) and dust where stars are born
the earliest stage in the life cycle of a star.
areas of gas that are cooler than the gases around them.
The amount of this energy that actually reaches the edge of Earth's atmosphere
mostly made of rock and metal. They have relatively high densities, slow rotations, solid surfaces, and few moons. Include Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
made mostly of hydrogen and helium. They have relatively low densities, rapid rotations, very thick atmospheres, and many moons. Include Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
Gravitational forces of collapse are so strong, not even light can escape
Spectacular explosion as repulsive forces between iron nuclei overcome gravitational forces.
Super-dense remnant core of a massive star; composed of neutrons
About the size of Earth with the same mass as the sun; brightly glowing remnant core of a medium-sized star
Largest planet; more liquid than gas or solid; contains "Great Red Spot" storm
Second largest planet; its rings are visible from Earth
Brightest planet in the night sky, has an extreme green house effect due to very high levels of CO2
Closest planet to the sun, has no atmosphere
Outermost gas planet; photographed with faint rings and moons by Voyager
Object once thought to be a planet, but now characterized as a Kuiper Belt object. Still considered a dwarf planet.