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What are some advantages of science over other sources of knowledge?

It is empirical, theoretical(progressive, tentative, and self-correcting), and parsimonious

Why is being progressive an important feature of science?

It helps researchers discover more and in doing so knowing more about a particular topic

3 criteria for a study to be considered scientific

Systematic empiricism- relying on observation to draw conclusions about the world

Public verification- the same study can be done by someone else; a published study

solvable problems- questions that are answerable given current knowledge and research techniques

4 goals of psychological science

to describe behavior(to know what's going on), to explain behavior(to comprehend why something is going on), to predict behavior, and to control behavior

4 Cannons of science

determinism(theory), empiricism, parsimony, testability(falsifiability)

internal validity

degree to which a researcher draws accurate conclusions about the independent variable

external validity

degree to which results can be generalized to other research samples, and procedures

Importance of a theory to science; what do they accomplish

a systematic, lawful relationship between variables(constructs); organizes past research and guide future research

Imp. characteristics of a good hypothesis

Must be logical, testable, and falsifiable

operational definition

defining how a research variable will be manipulated or measured in a particular study; it is important because definitions can vary from person to person or research to research

scientific filter

a filter that separates valid from invalid ideas; it narrows down and weeds out ideas that may just be based off of hunches to ideas that are supported by studies and continued to be used by other scientists

sampling error

the amount of error that exists between a sample statistic and the corresponding population parameter

Diff. b/t random sampling and random assignment

random sampling is when each element of the population has an equal chance of being selected; random assignment is when participants are assigned to experimental and control conditions by chance

2 important advantages of stem and leaf plot

data is always there(retains raw data), you only go through the data once; neat and efficient

Informed consent and voluntary participation

To inform participants about the details of the research that might influence their willingness to participate in it; voluntary participation is when a person chooses to participate in the study after informed consent.

Accomplishing in debriefing

Clarify goals of research and answer questions, undo deception and explain the study fully and accurately, undo psychological harm done, do a manipulation check and a deception check

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