• Gustave Courbet, "Letter to a Group of Young Artists from Paris, December 25, 1861";
-"no school can resolutely lead us to synthesis"
-art should not be taught by a master to a group of students
-art is to come from the person's own thoughts and views
-art can't be taught
-beauty of nature is most beautiful subject
-"No period can be reproduced except by its own artists"
• Émile Zola, "Édouard Manet" (1867), focus on pp. 426-430;
-she takes the time to investigate his background and many details in his life
-viewed the world through his love of "broad and vivid colors"
-emile agrees "For mercy's sake, paint since you are painters"
-"an ideal perfection toward which each artist strives and which each more of less attains" is the crowds view
• Émile Blémont, "The Impressionists" (1876);
-how impressionists "do not imitate, they translate"
• Félix Fénéon, "The Impressionists in 1886" and
-how "their method, then, was to break up colors" and "divide their colors consciously and scientifically"
-no room to fake it, just do what you do
• "Neoimpressionism" (1887).
-how these painters showed "sensitivity to colors" by breaking up the tones
Interviewer: Gene Swenson
-went from graphic designer to avant-garde artist
-Warhol wants everyone to think alike, which is what he thinks is already starting to happen (like in russia)
-andy thinks everyone should be like a machine
-whos the judge on who's creative or not? What style is better? everybody's always being creative
-even though he worked for commercial art, the corrections he made would have feelings to it, commercial art was machine- like, but the attitude had feeling to it
-he saw a lot of people getting hurt, blooood errywhere, death, did a death series, but when you see gruesome picture over and over, it looses its effect
-did a series of pornographic pictures (only see them under blacklight) & partners having sex
-style isn't important
-thinks eventaully everyone will think alike, everyone will think how they want to think, but it will all become similar cause thats how it seems so far, he says
Artist: Le Corbusier
Place: Poissy-sure-Seine, France
-the simple geometric aesthetic developed by Gropius and Mies van der Pohe became known as the International style because of its widespread popularity. the first and purest exponent of this style was Le Corbusier
-maintained the basic physical and psychological needs of every human being: the sun, space, good vegetarian combined with controlled temp, good ventilation and insulation against harmful and undesired noise.
-advocated basing dwelling designs on human scale, because the house is humankinds asseration within nature
-it sits at the center of a large plot of land cleared of trees and shrubs
-all windows on all sides and the villas rood terrance provide the residents with broad views of the surrounding landscape,
-several colors appear on the xterior - originally, a dark-green base, cream walls and a rose and blue windscreen on top
-the were deliberate analogy for the colors in the machine-inspired Purist style of painting Le Corbusoer practiced
-much of the houses interior is open space
-the major living rooms are on the second floor, wrapping around an open central court
-strip windows run along the membrane-like exterior walls providing illumination to the rooms as well as views out in nature
-it has no traditional facade, the ostensible approach to the house does not define an entrance
- visitors much walk around an through the house to comprehend its layout, which incorporate several changes of direction and spiral staircases
-spaces and masses interpenetrate so fluidly that inside and outside space intermingle
-the machine-plamed smoothness of the unadorned surfaces and slender ribbons of continuos windows, and the buoyant lightness of the whole fabric -all combine to reverse heavy elements above and light ones below
Artist: Richard Sierra
Place: New York City
-much of the public immediately responded with hostile criticism
-prompting the chorus of complaints was the uncompromising presence of a minimalist sculpture bisecting the plaza
-many argued that it was ugly, attracted graffiti, interfered with the view across the plaza, and prevented use of the plaza for performances or concerts.
-due to the sustained potests and petitions demanding the removal of it, it was removed
-this infuriated serra, who had a legally binding contract acknowledging the site-specific nature and "to remove the work is to destroy the work"
-this raised issues of public art, as well as public reception of experimental art, the artists responsibilities and right when executing public commissions, censorship or art and the purpose of public art,
-imposed the question "should an artist have the right ti impose his values and taste on a public that now rejects his taste and values?
-ultimately who should decide what artworks are appropriate for the public area?
-to avoid recurrences of the tilted arc controversy, the GDA changed its procedures and now solicits input from a wide range of civic and neighborhood groups before commissioning public art
-despite the removal of titled arc (now in storage) the sculpture maintains a powerful presences in all discussion of aesthetics, politics and dynamics of public art.