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AP Government in America 17th Edition Chapter 1
Terms in this set (22)
the institutions and processes through which public policies are made for a society
public (or collective) goods
goods, such as clean air and clean water, that everyone must share
the process by which we select our governmental leaders and what policies these leaders pursue; produces authoritative decisions about public issues
all the activities by which citizens attempt to influence the selection of political leaders and the policies they pursue; voting is the most common means of this in a democracy
groups that have a narrow interest, on which their members tend to take an uncompromising stance
the process by which policy comes into being and evolves; people's interests, problems, and concerns create political issues for government policymakers. these issues shape policy, which in turn impacts people, generating more interests, problems, and concerns
the political channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the policy agenda; in the U.S., these include elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media
the issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people involved in politics at a point in time
an issue that arises when people disagree about a problem and how to fix it
the branches of government charged with taking action on political issues; the U.S. Constitution established three such institutions-Congress, the presidency, and the courts. today, the power of the bureaucracy is so great that most political scientists consider it a fourth institution
a choice that government makes in response to a political issue; a policy is a course of action take with regard to some problem
the effects a policy has on people and problems; impacts are analyzed to see how well a policy has met its goal and at what cost
a system of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public's preferences
a fundamental principle of traditional democratic theory. in a democracy, choosing among alternatives requires that the majority's desire be represented.
a principle of traditional democratic theory that guarantees rights to those who do not belong to majorities
a basic principle of traditional democratic theory that describes the relationship between the few leaders and the many followers.
a theory of American democracy emphasizing that the policymaker process is very open to the participation of all groups with shared interests, with no single group usually dominating; they tend to believe that as a result public interest general prevails.
a theory of American democracy contending that an upper-class elite holds the power and makes policy, regardless of the formal governmental organization.
a theory of American democracy contending that groups are so strong that government, which gives into the many different groups is thereby weakened.
a condition that occurs when interests conflict and no coalition is strong enough to form a majority and establish policy so nothing gets done.
an overall set of values widely shared within a society.
gross domestic product
the sum total of the value of all the goods and services produced in a year in a nation.
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