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Give me Liberty Focus Questions and key terms
Terms in this set (134)
What were the major patterns of Native American life in North America before Europeans arrived?
North America was hardly an empty wilderness when Europeans arrived. It contained cities, roads, irrigation systems, extensive trade networks, and large structure. North American Indians lacked the technologies Europeans had mastered, such as mental tools and machines, gunpowder, and scientific knowledge for long distance navigation.
How did Indian & European ideas of freedom differ on the eve of contact?
European saw Indians as too free, lacking order and discipline that Europeans considered important to civilization. Indians judged one another according to their ability to live up to widely understood ideas of appropriate behavior. Kinship ties were far more important than individual autonomy.
What impelled European explorers to look west across the Atlantic?
The European conquest of America began as an offshoot of the quest for a sea route to India, china, and the islands of the East Indies, the source of the silk, tea, spices, porcelain, and other luxury goods. Profit and piety- the desire to eliminate Islamic middlemen and win control of trade for Christian western Europe- combined to inspire the quest for a direct route to Asia.
What happened when the peoples of the Americas came in contact with Europeans?
The Indian populations suffered a decline because of contact with Europeans and their wars, enslavement, and especially diseases like smallpox, influenza, and measles. Never having encountered these diseases, Indians had not developed antibodies to fight them.
What were the chief features of the Spanish empire in America?
The Spanish empire included the most populous parts of the New World and the regions riches in natural resources. Government- Authority originated with the king and flowed downward through the Council of the Indies- the main body in Spain for colonial administration. The Catholic Church also played a significant role in the administration of Spanish colonies, frequently exerting its authority on matters of faith, morals, and treatment of the Indians.
What were the chief features of French & Dutch empires in North America?
French - emphasis on the fur trade rather than agricultural settlement, the viability of New France depended on friendly relations with local Indians. The French prided themselves on adopting a more humane policy than their imperial rivals.
Dutch -rapidly accumulated wealth and achievements in painting, philosophy, and the sciences. Invented the joint stock company, a way of pooling financial resources and sharing the risk of voyages, which proved central to the development of modern capitalism.
The capital of the Aztec empire in what is now Mexico, was one of the world's largest cities.
Mississippi River valley, the city of Cahokia near present day St. Louis, a fortified community with between 10,000 and 30,000 inhabitants in the year 1200
The transatlantic flow of goods and people, altered millions of years of evolution.
the image of Spain as a uniquely brutal and exploitative colonizer
Pueblo Indians had triumphantly reestablished the freedom lost through the Spanish Conquest.
What were the main contours of English colonization in the 17th century?
Seventeenth-century North America was an unstable and dangerous environment. Diseases decimated Indian and settler populations alike. Colonies were racked by religious, political, and economic tensions and drawn into imperial wars and conflict with Indians. They remained dependent on the mother country for protection and economic assistance
What obstacles did the English in the Chesapeake overcome?
The colony's (tobacco producing) leadership changed repeatedly, its inhabitants suffered an extraordinarily high death rate, and, with the company seeking a quick profit, supplies from England proved inadequate.
How did VA & MD develop their in their early years?
Although it began under very different sponsorship and remained much smaller than Virginia during the seventeenth century, the second Chesapeake colony, Maryland, followed a similar course of development. As in Virginia, tobacco came to dominate the economy and tobacco planters the society.
What made the English settlement of New England distinctive?
A different social order emerged in New England, a religious movement known as "Puritanism." A term was initially coined by opponents to ridicule those not satisfied with the progress of the Protestant Reformation in England, who called themselves not Puritans but "godly" or "true Protestants."
What were the main sources of discord in early New England?
The main sources discord in early New England was disruptive religious controversies, relations with Native Americans. The languages and the constant wars between the Natives and Puritans, and the language differences caused them to have a bad relationship with each other.
How did the English Civil War affect the colonies in America?
It caused a division between loyalists of English Parliament and free English colonies.
A Discourse Concerning Western Planting
written in 1584 at the request of Sir Walter Raleigh, the Protestant minister and scholar Tichard Hakluyt listed twenty-three reasons why Queen Elizabeth I should support the establishment of colonies.
awarded fifty acres of land to any colonist who paid for his own or another's passage.
Turning point in 1637 when a fur trader was killed by Pequots - a powerful tribe who controlled Southern New England's fur trade and exacted tribute from other Indians. The destruction in this war of one if the region's most powerful Indian groups not only opened the Connecticut River valley to rapid white settlement but also made other Indians fear the European power.
By 1650 less than half the population of Boston had been admitted to full church membership. The Half-Way Covenant of 1662 tried to address this problem by allowing for the baptism and a kind of subordinate, "half-way" membership for grandchildren of those who emigrated during the Great Migration.
How did the English empire in America expand in the mid-17th century?
In the mid seventeenth century it became apparent to the European countries that American Colonies would become an important source of wealth. European mother countries expanded in America through mercantilism (government should regulate economic activity so as to promote national power. It should encourage manufacturing and commerce by special bounties, monopolies, and other measures. The main result of this theory is that the mother countries, Europeans, could control trade so that more gold and silver flowed into the country than left it. These export goods created revenue for mother countries. Because of this Europe continued to expand in America with financial profits.
How was slavery established in the Western Atlantic world?
Slavery was established in the Western Atlantic world
during the seventeenth century. It occurred when race and racism were not fully developed terms or concepts. European
people had always looked at alien people with disdain, including the Irish, Native Americans, and Africans. They
described these foreign people as savage, pagan and uncivilized. Africans were frowned upon the most. Africans were so
alien in color, religion, and social practices, that they were "enslavable."
What major social & political crises rocked the colonies in the late 17th century?
The right to vote was restricted more, increase in resistance by alarmed Indians, and the formation of Charles II's national rule are all social and political issues in the colonies in the 17th century.
What were the directions of social & economic change in the 18th century colonies?
The direction of social and economic change in the 18th century was becoming a melting pot for religious diversity, Native American land was used for profit, and large industrial cities were created also for profitable reasons.
How did patterns of class & gender roles change in 18th century America?
America had no title aristocracy as in Britain. It had not system of legally established social ranks or family pedigrees stretching back to medieval times. This was beneficial for most classes of people.
The government should regulate economic activity so as to promote national power. It should encourage manufacturing and commerce by special bounties, monopolies, and other measures. Trade should be controlled so that more gold and silver flowed into the country than left it. (England should enjoy the profits arising from the English empire).
aimed to wrest control of world trade from the Dutch, whose merchants profited from free trade with all parts of the world. Certain "enumerated goods-essentially the most valuable, such as tobacco and sugar, had to be transported in English ships and sold initially in English ports.
Virginia's shift from white indentured servants to African slaves as the main plantation labor force was accelerated by one of the most dramatic confrontations of the era. A conflict with the Virginia elite
Parliament expanded its control of finance, influenced foreign affairs, and excluded from political and religious power Catholics and Dissenters -Protestants who belonged to a denomination other than the official Anglican Church.
English Toleration Act
Allowed all Protestants (not Catholics) to worship freely, but could not hold public office.
Salem witch trials
In 1692 a series of trials and execution took place in the town of Salem for witchcraft.
English and Dutch merchants created a well-organized system whereby "redemptioners" (as indentured families were called) received passage in exchange for a promise to work off their debt in America.
How did African slavery differ regionally in 18th-century North America?
African slavery was largely regionalized in the 18th century North America. Slavery was largely rejected by the North and was eventually banned but the South favored it because of its cheap labor.
What factors led to distinct African-American cultures in the 18th century?
The harsh living conditions, low birth rate, and seldom contact with whites caused African-American cultures to be distinctively different.
What were the meanings of British liberty in the 18th century?
British freedom celebrated the rule of law, the right to live under legislation to which one's representatives had consented, restraints on the arbitrary exercise of political authority, and rights like trial by jury enshrined in the common law.
What concepts & institutions dominated colonial politics in the 18th century?
Right to vote, right to assembly, right to press, religious freedom, politics in public and colonial government
How did the Great Awakening challenge the religious & social structure of British North America?
The Great Awakening challenged religious and social because it was attempting to use these things for profit. Ministers were claiming to be able to free people from sins if they donated enough money to the church; this caused the church to become very corrupt.
How did the Spanish & French empires in America develop in the 18th century?
The Spanish empire encompassed and area that stretched from the Pacific coast and New Mexico into the Great Plains and eastward through Texas and Florida. In the second half of the century, the Spanish government made a concerted effort to reinvigorate its empire north of the Rio Grande. The French empire - The population and economy of Canada expanded and French traders pushed into the Mississippi River and southward from the Great Lakes. Nonetheless, the population of French North American continued to be dwarfed by the British colonies.
What was the impact of the Seven Years' War on imperial & Indian-white relations?
Britain's victory fundamentally reshaped the world balance of power. Open war-fare in North America between the British and Native Americans.
The Interesting Narratives of the Life of Olaudah Equiano
published by Equiano (settled in London) in 1789. The book became the era's most widely read account by a slave of his own experiences.
Atlantic slave trade-
it was a regularized business in which European merchants, African traders, and American planters engaged in complex bargaining over human lives, all with the expectation of securing a profit.
For slaves the voyage across the Atlantic. It was the second, or middle, leg in the triangular trading routes linking Europe, Africa, and American - was a harrowing experience.
In the Chesapeake, field slaves worked in groups under constant supervision. Under the "task" system that developed in the eighteenth century South Carolina, individual slaves were assigned daily jobs, the completion of which allowed them time for leisure or to cultivate crops of their own.
Slaves seized the opportunity for rebellion offered by the War of Jenkins' Ear, which pitted England against Spain. In 1739 a group of South Carolina slaves, most of them recently arrived from Kongo where some, had been soldiers, seized a store containing numerous weapons at the town of Stono. The Stono Rebellion led to a severe tightening of the South Carolina slave code and the temporary imposition of a prohibitive tax on imported slaves.
Religious revival movement in the 1720's- 1740's that was spread throughout the colonies by ministers like New England Congregationalist Jonathan Edwards and English revivalist George Whitefield.
In 1763, in the wake of the French defeat, Indians of the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes launched a revolt against British rule. Pontiac's Rebellion after an Ottawa war leader, the rebellion owed at least as much to the teachings of Neolin, a Delaware religious prophet.
What were the roots & significance of the Stamp Act controversy?
Represented a new departure in imperial policy. For the first time, Parliament attempted to raise money from direct taxes in the colonies rather than through the regulation of trade. The act required that all sorts of printed material produced in the colonies- newspapers, books, court documents, commercial papers, land deeds, almanacs, etc. - carry a stamp purchased from authorities. The Act was the first major split between colonists and Great Britain over the meaning of freedom.
What key events sharpened the divisions between Britain & the colonists in the late 1760s & early 1770s?
The Townshend crisis, Homespun virtue, the Boston Massacre, the Tea Act and the Intolerable Acts all played a role.
What key events marked the move toward American independence?
The Townshend crisis, Homespun virtue, the Boston Massacre, the Tea Act and the Intolerable Acts all played a role.
How were American forces able to prevail in the Revolutionary War?
Experience in fighting in the Seven Years' War and on their soil for a cause that inspired devotion and sacrifice.
reduced the existing tax on molasses imported into North America from the French West Indies from 6 pence to 3 pence per gallon. The act also established a new machinery to end widespread smuggling by colonial merchants.
Daughters of Liberty
Women who displayed their loyalty by participating in boycotts of British goods by making home spun and wove cloth and other goods. (Martha Washington, SaraFranklin Backe, etc.)
a convention of delegates from Massachusetts towns approved series of resolutions that urged Americans to refuse obedience to the new laws, withhold taxes and prepare for war.
Thomas Paine's published pamphlet
Treaty of Paris
With the Treaty of Paris, the United States of America became the Western Hemisphere's first independent nation, ended in 1783.
How did equality become a stronger component of American freedom after the Revolution?
It took the struggle for independence to transform it into a nation that celebrated equality and opportunity. The Declaration of Independence that "all men are created equal."
How did the expansion of religious liberty after the Revolution reflect the new American ideal of freedom?
The Revolution enhanced the diversity of American Christianity and expanded the idea of religious liberty. The separation of church and state created the social and political space that allowed all kinds of religious institutions to flourish, the culture of individual rights of which that separation was a part threatened to undermine church authority.
How did the definition of economic freedom change after the Revolution, & who benefited from the changes?
In the generation after independence, with the rapid decline of indenture servitude and apprenticeship and the transformation of paid domestic service into an occupation for blacks and white females, the halfway house between slavery and freedom disappeared, at least for white men. Wage workers became more available.
How did the Revolution diminish the freedoms of both Loyalists & Native Americans?
Loyalists- those who retained their allegiance to the crown-experienced the conflict and its after math as a loss of liberty. Colonists continued to move westward taking Indian land.
What was the impact of the Revolution on slavery?
African-Americans saw in the ideals of the Revolution and the reality of war an opportunity to claim freedom.
How did the Revolution affect the status of women?
Within the household women participated in the political discussions unleashed by independence.
To finance the war, Congress issued hundreds of millions of dollars in paper money, coupled with wartime disruption of agriculture ad trade and the hoarding of goods by some Americans hoping to profit from shortages, this produced an enormous increase in prices. Price of consumer goods goes up.
The first concrete steps toward emancipation in revolutionary America were "freedom petitions"- arguments for liberty presented to New England's courts and legislatures in the early 1770's by enslaved African-Americans.
ruled out direct female involvement in politics, it encouraged the expansion of educational opportunities for women, so that they could import political wisdom to their children.
What were the achievements & problems of the Confederation government?
The Articles sought to balance the need for national coordination of the War of Independence with widespread fear that centralized political power posed a danger to liberty. The Articles made energetic national government impossible. Establishing national control over land to the west of the thirteen states and devising rules for its settlement.
What major disagreements & compromises molded the final content of the Constitution?
Difference quickly emerged over the proper balance between the federal and state governments and between interests of large and small states. Debate over slavery- the word slave and slavery did not appear in the Constitution.
How did Anti-Federalist concerns raised during the ratification process lead to the creation of the Bill of Rights?
Opponents of ratification, called Anti-Federalists, insisted that the Constitution shifted the balance between liberty and power too far in the direction of power. Anti-Federalists also pointed to the Constitution's lack of a Bill of Rights, which left unprotected rights such as trial by jury and freedom of speech and the press.
How did the definition of citizenship in the new republic exclude Native Americans & blacks?
Nowhere does the original Constitution define who in fact are citizens of the United Sates. The individual states were left free to determine the boundaries of liberty.
Land Ordinances of 1784 & 1785
The Land Ordinance of 1784 written by Thomas Jefferson called to divide western land into districts and governed by Congress. The Land Ordinance of 1785 clarified how the land north of the Ohio River would be sold and the settlement of the land.
crowds of debt-ridden farmers closed the courts in western Massachusetts to prevent the seizure of their land for failure to pay taxes.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 was the creation of the Northwest Territory as the first organized territory of the United States out of the region south of the Great Lakes, north and west of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River. The Northwest Ordinance also prohibited slavery in the territory.
allowed the white South to exercise far greater power in national affairs than the size of its free population warranted. The clause greatly enhanced the number of southern voters in the House of Representatives and therefore the Electoral College.
"The Federalist," was made to generate support, Hamilton, Madison, and Jay composed a series of 85 essays that appeared in in newspapers under the pen name Publics and were gathered as a book in 1788. Federalist Party- one of the two first national political parties; led by George Washington, John Adams, and Alexander Hamilton, it favored a strong central government.
were opponents of ratification, they insisted that the Constitution shifted the balance between liberty and power too far in the direction of the latter. Opponents of the Constitution who saw it as a limitation on individual and states' rights; their demands led to the addition of a Bill of Rights to the document.
Envisions the nation as a community open to all those devoted to its political institutions and social values.
Which defines the nation as a community of descent based on a shared ethnic heritage, language, and culture.
What issues made the politics of the 1790s so divisive?
Political division first surfaced over the financial plan developed by Secretary of the Treasury Hamilton in 1790 and 1791. Hamilton's vision of powerful commercial republic, in this plan won over financers, manufactures, and merchants. But alarmed those who believed the new nation's destiny lay in charting, a different path of development. This caused much division between politics.
How did the competing views of freedom & global events promote the political divisions of the 1790s?
Competing views of freedom and global events promote the political divisions because these things like freedom cause a lot of differences in opinions dividing peoples.
What were the achievements & failures of Jefferson's presidency?
A couple of his achievements were acquiring Louisiana and getting rid of taxes and increasing embargos. One failure was the Barbary Wars
What were the causes & significant results of the War of 1812?
Two of the biggest causes of the 1812 War were the British pushing Tecumseh's efforts contributed to come to the War of 1812, and assaults on American ships. The significant results of the war was
Bank of the United States
Part of Hamilton's financial plan called for the creation of a Bank of the United States, modeled on the Bank of England, to serve as the nation's main financial agent. A private corporation would hold public funds, issue bank notes that would serve as currency, and make loans to the government when necessary, all the while returning a tidy profit to its stockholders
Those who believed that the government only had the power to do things specifically listed in the Constitution
The practice of kidnapping sailors, including American citizens of British origin, to serve the British navy.
Sent to London to present objection to Impressment, while still serving as chief justice, John Jay negotiated an agreement in 1794 that produced the greatest public controversy of Washington's presidency. Jay's Treaty contained no British concessions on impressment or the rights of American shipping. Britain did agree to abandon outposts on the western frontier. In return, the United States guaranteed favored treatment to British imported goods
broke out in 1794 when backcountry Pennsylvania farmers sought to block collection of the new tax on distilled spirits.
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Mary Wollstonecraft published in England her extraordinary pamphlet in 1792. Inspired by Paine's Right of Man, she asserted that the "rights of humanity" should not be "confined to the male line."
allowed the deportation of persons from abroad deemed "dangerous" by federal authorities
authorized the persecution of virtually any public assembly or publication critical of the government.
a plot by slaves in Virginia itself to gain their freedom. The plot was soon discovered and the leaders arrested. Twenty-six slaves, including Gabriel, were hanged and dozens more transported out of the state.
Jefferson thought it important to expand Westward and his greatest achievement was the Louisiana Purchase. The purchase of the Louisiana Territory from the French doubled the size of the United States and ended the French presence in the North American. (p. 312)
Embargo Act- a ban on all American vessels sailing for foreign ports.
didn't call for secession or disunion, but it affirmed the right of ta state to "interpose" its authority if the federal government violated the Constitution.
What were the main elements of the market revolution?
The market revolution represented an acceleration of developments already under way in the colonial era. In the first half of the 19th century, in rapid succession, the steamboat, canal, railroad, and telegraph brought America out of its economic past. These innovation opened new land to settlement, lowered transportation costs, and made it far easier for economic enterprises to sell their products.
How did the market revolution spark social change?
Growth of cities, factory systems, the "mill girls," growth of immigration all had an impact on social change.
How did the meanings of American freedom change in this period?
During this second great awakening American Freedom changed. There was more freedom than ever before. Laws begun to favor the individual person not the government. This was because of the new idea "individualism.
How did the market revolution affect the lives of workers, women, & blacks?
These groups were all disadvantaged from this revolution. Free blacks were excluded from the new economic opportunities because of discrimination. These people may have been free but they lived in some of the poorest areas and conditions of anyone in the North. They were viewed as low wage competitors. Women were disadvantaged because the household declined as a center of economic production. Workers were forced to work in low wages and harsh living conditions.
363-miles. Allowed goods to flow between the Great Lakes and New York City.
A long distance line across the country to provide quick long distance communication, it was one of the three major advancements along with the rail road and the canal system.
in 1793 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. This machine quickly separated seeds from the cotton. This increased cotton production three times.
John Deere steel plow
allowed farmers to quickly prep there soil for seed planting.
Cyrus McCormick reaper
a steal plow pulled by horses
those feared the impact of immigration on American political and social life.
meaning that the United States had a divinely appointed mission, so obvious as to be beyond dispute, to occupy all of North America.
Also called transcendental philosophy. Any philosophy based upon the doctrine that the principles of reality are to be discovered by the study of the processes of thought, or a philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical: in the U.S., associated with Emerson.
individualism "moral free agent"
Cult of domesticity
the term used to describe women's household items being economically deprived. Omen were now useless to society, and were viewed as there place being in the home not out in society.
What were the social bases for the flourishing democracy of the early mid-19th century?
The social basis for democracy was property. By 1860 all other voting requirements had been destroyed accept the property requirement.
What efforts were made in this period to strengthen the economic integration of the nation, & what major crises hindered those efforts?
The United States Bank and other internal government improvements like rail roads and canals were meant to strengthen the economic integration, but things like resentment towards the 2nd National Bank, The Panic of 1819 (when European demand for American products went back to normal levels it caused a huge economic downfall,) and the Missouri Controversy were all crisis that hindered these financial efforts.
What were the major areas of conflict between nationalism & sectionalism?
Nationalism wanted to expand its country inside its borders while sectionalism wanted to expand its country outside its borders.
In what ways did Andrew Jackson embody the contradictions of democratic nationalism?
Andrew Jackson embodied the contradictions of democratic nationalism when he attempted to attract the Whigs as well. This gave him control to guide economic development in many major areas across the United States. He also attracted many more votes this way.
How did the Bank War influence the economy & party competition?
It increased wages, prices, and increased the value of money but this boom ended quickly causing a massive decline in the value of money. With this happened in politics the hard money, anti-bank wing of the Democratic Party came to power.
A peoples convention for voting right shut down by the Government and their military
The components of the American System were a new national bank, a tariff on imported manufactured goods to protect American industry, and federal financing of improved roads and canals. The roads and canals improvements were vetoed by President Madison, but the other parts of the plan became law. The tariff offered protection to goods that could be produced in the United Sates. The new national bank of the United States promoted economic growth by helping to finance manufacturing and commerce. The bank gave loans to farmers for the purchase of land, tools, consumer goods, and slaves in the South. The bank also printed paper money.
improvements done within the country (Nationalism)
2nd Bank of the United States
1815, by President James Madison, resented by the public, and it issued taxes printed paper money, was a private profit making cooperation.
Panic of 1819
when European demand for American products went back to normal levels it caused a huge economic downfall
The Missouri Compromise had three parts. Under the agreement Missouri would be allowed to draft a constitution, Maine would be admitted to the Union to maintain a balance between free and slave states, and slavery would be prohibited in all remaining territories within the Louisianan Purchase north of the Missouri's southern boundary. The Missouri Compromise temporarily settled the question of the expansion of slavery by dividing the Louisiana Purchase into free and slave areas. The nullification crisis was sectional crisis created by South Carolina. The ordinance declared that the tariffs were unconstitutional and therefore null and void.
It expressed three principles. The United States would oppose any further efforts of colonization by European powers and the United States would abstain from involvement in the wars of Europe.
When South Carolina was forced to use new tariff and a tax on imported goods
Indian Removal Act
the moving of all Native Americans west of the Mississippi River
that the Government would only accept silver and gold for public land payment
Panic of 1837
The Panic of 1837 some believed was caused by President Jackson's policies. The government sold twenty million acres of federal land in 1836 at questionable value and only accepting gold and silver as payment for public land. The Bank of England suspicious of the value of American bank notes also demanded American merchants to their creditors in gold or silver. These events started an economic collapse in the United States and eventually a depression lasting until 1843.
How did slavery shape social & economic relations in the Old South?
Caused great discrimination towards blacks but provided very cheap labor allowing plantations to mass produce their products.
What were the legal & material constraints on slaves' lives & work?
Slaves did not vote and were denied basic rights. They could not own dogs, firearms, or liquor. They also were prohibited from striking a white person even if it was self-defense. They were also restricted to being engineers, blacksmith's, and weavers.
How did family, gender, religion, & values combine to create distinct slave cultures in the Old South?
Slave life was much different than the whites. Gender was of an equal ration and males did not look to females as inferiors as the whites did. The salve community was like one big family, which is much different from white relation.
What were the major forms of resistance to slavery?
The Amistad, slave revolts, Nat Turner's Rebellion
there must be a mutual respect between the master and his slaves. This narrows the cultural gap between the slaves and their master.
Arguments for slavery
biggest augment slavery was at best a "necessary evil," this was perfect equality for blacks considering how inferior they are to whites, also has been around as long as the bible.
Methods of slave resistance
Silent sabotage, escape, revolts
Nat Turner's Rebellion
Most important slave uprising in the 19th century America, led by a slave preacher who, with his followers, killed about sixty white persons in Southhampton County, Virginia, 1831
What were the major movements & goals of antebellum reform?
Peace, temperance, women's rights, and anti-slavery were the three biggest reforms and goals of this reform.
What were the different varieties of abolitionism?
The different varieties of Abolitionism were, militant, spreading the message, moral suasion, and the idea of freedom.
How did abolitionism challenge barriers to racial equality & free speech?
Abolitionism showed everyone that this was not morally right. It showed that blacks are truly equal and the same to white. Abolitionism pushed free speech because it allowed them to voice their opinions against these things
What were the diverse sources of the antebellum women's rights movement & its significance?
One of the things focused on during this women's rights movement was that women are just a capable as men, they have competency and skills just as men do proving that women should have a voice in things. They also proved that they can perform the same tasks just as well as men also proving that they are extremely capable of paid work.
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