the word part that is the core of the word and contains the fundamental meaning of the word.
a word part, usually an o, used to ease pronunciation. (not placed to connect a prefix and word root)
basic unit of all living things. The human body is composed of trillions of cells, which vary in size and shape according to function.
space containing the stomach, intestines, kidneys, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, and ureters
space containing the urinary bladder, certain reproductive organs, parts of the small and large intestine, and the rectum.
largest structure within the cell, usually spherical and centrally located. It contains chromosomes for cellular reproduction and is the control center of the cell.
two or more kinds of tissues that together perform special body functions. For example, the skin is an organ composed of epithelial, connective, muscle, and nerve tissue.
metastasis (mets) (pl. metastases)
beyond control (spread of disease from one organ to another, as in the transfer of malignant tumors)
abnormal condition of blue (bluish discoloration of the skin caused by inadequate supply of oxygen in the blood)
study of disease (a branch of medicine dealing with the study of the causes of disease and death)
vertical field running through the body from front to back, dividing the body into right and left sides (any plane parallel to the midsaggital plane)
coronal (frontal) plane
vertical field passing through the body from side to side, dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions
vertical field running through the body from front to back at the midline, dividing the body equally into right and left halves
vertical field running through the body from front to back, dividing the body into unequal left and right sides
four abdominopelvic quadrants
The abdominopelvic cavity divided into 4 parts. Right Upper, Left Upper, Right Lower, Left Lower
right upper quadrant (RUQ)
refers to the area encompassing the right lobe of the liver, the gallbladder, part of the pancreas, and portions of the small and large intestines
left upper quadrant (LUQ)
refers to the area encompassing the left lobe of the liver, the stomach, the spleen, part of the pancreas, and portions of the small and large intestines
right lower quadrant (RLQ)
refers to the area encompassing portions of the small and large intestines, the appendix, the right ureter, and the right ovary and uterine tube in women or the right spermatic duct in men
left lower quadrant (LLQ)
refers to the area encompassing portions of the small and large intestines, the left ureter, and the left ovary and uterine tube in women or the left spermatic duct in men
serves as food and air passageway. Air enters from the nasal cavities and passes through the pharynx to the larynx. Food enters the pharynx from the mouth and passes into the esophagus; (also called the throat)
one of two branches from the trachea that conducts air into the lungs, where it divides and subdivides. The branchings resemble a tree; therefore, they are referred to as a bronchial tree.
air sacs at the end of the bronchioles. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged through the alveolar walls and the capillaries.
muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. It aids in the breathing process by contracting and pulling air in, then relaxing and pushing air out.
pharyngitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis
inflammation of the pharynx, inflammation of the larynx, inflammation of the tonsils
respiratory disease characterized by paroxysms of coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath, which is caused by constriction of airways that is reversible between attacks.
highly contagious bacterial infection of the respiratory tract characterized by an acute crowing inspiration, or whoop (also called whooping cough)
obstructive sleep apnea
repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep, which leads to absence of breathing; can produce daytime drowsiness and elevated blood pressure
arterial blood gases
a test performed on arterial blood to determine levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases present
air in the chest (pleural space), which causes collapse of the lung (often a result of an open chest wound)
open, the opposite of closed or compromised, thus allowing passage of air, as in patent trachea and bronchi(can be applied to any tubular passageway in the body, as in a patent artery, allowing passage of blood)
to withdraw fluid or suction fluid; also to draw foreign material into the respiratory tract
an infectious disease, caused by an acid-fast bacillus, most commonly spread by inhalation of small particles and usually affecting the lungs
Upper chambers of the heart, the right atrium receives blood returning from the body through the veins; the left atrium receives blood from the lungs.
lower chambers of the heart, the left ventricle pumps blood through the arteries from the heart back to the body tissue; the right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs.
atrioventricular valve of the heart that lies between the left atrium and left ventricle, keeps blood flowing in one direction
atrioventricular valve of the heart that lies between the right atrium and the right ventricle, keeps blood flowing in one direction.
semilunar valve of the heart located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
two-layer sac surrounding the heart, consisting of an external fibrous and an internal serous layer. The serous layer secretes a fluid that facilitates movement of the heart. It consists of two layers, one lining the fibrous pericardium and one covering the heart, called epicardium.
blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. All arteries, with the exception of the pulmonary artery, carry oxygen and other nutrients from the heart to the body cells. In contrast, the pulmonary artery carries carbon dioxide and other waste products from the heart to the lungs.
blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart. All veins, with the exception of the pulmonary veins, carry blood containing carbon dioxide and other waste products. The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of blood in which cells are suspended. Plasma is approximately 90% water and comprises approximately 55% of the total blood volume.
white blood cells that combat infection and respond to inflammation. There are five types of white blood cells.
located in the left side of the abdominal cavity between the stomach and the diaphragm. In adulthood, the spleen is the largest lymphatic organ in the body. Blood, rather than lymph, flows through the spleen. Blood is cleansed of microorganisms in the spleen. The spleen stores blood and destroys worn out red blood cells.
sudden cessation of cardiac output and effective circulation, which requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
inherited bleeding disease most commonly caused by a deficiency of the coagulation factor VIII
death (necrosis) of a portion of the myocardium caused by lack of oxygen resulting from an interrupted blood supply (also called heart attack)
malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal white blood cells formed in the bone marrow
an acute infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus characterized by swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, fatigue, and fever. The disease affects mostly young people and is usually transmitted by saliva.
reduction in the number of red bloods cells. _______ may be caused by blood loss or decrease in the production or increase in the destruction of red blood cells.
exercise stress test
a study that evaluates cardiac function during physical stress by riding a bike or walking on a treadmill. Electrocardiography, echocardiography, and nuclear medicine scanning are three types of tests performed to measure cardiac function while exercising.
a study that uses sound for detection of blood flow within the vessels; used to assess intermittent claudication, deep vein thrombosis, and other blood flow abnormalities
study of the heart (a branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the heart and blood vessels)
condition of (body) temperature that is below (normal) (sometimes induced for various surgical procedures, such as bypass surgery)
phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles relax between contractions (diastolic is the lower number of a blood pressure reading)
phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles contract (systolic is the upper number of a blood pressure reading)
the rhythmic expansion of an artery that can be felt with a finger. The pulse is most commonly felt over the radial artery; however, the pulsations can be felt over a number of sites, including the femoral and carotid arteries.
an exaggerated, life-threatening reaction to a previously encountered antigen such as bee venom, peanuts, or latex. Symptoms range from mild, with patients experiencing hives or sneezing, to severe symptoms such as drop in blood pressure and blockage of the airway, which can lead to death within minutes (also called anaphylactic shock).
the presence of bacteria or a virus into the body causing the immune system to fight back, Contamination or invasion of body tissue by pathogenic organisms
thick, bloodlike material found in flat bones and the ends of long bones; location of blood cell formation
second set of 12 vertebrae. They articulate with the 12 pairs of ribs to form the outward curve of the spine.
flexible, tough band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches one bone to another at a joint
abnormal condition of the vertebra (a general term used to describe changes to the spine from osteoarthritis or ankylosis)
abnormal prominence of the joint at the base of the great toe. It is a common problem, often hereditary or caused by poorly fitted shoes (also called hallux valgus)
abnormal loss of bone density that may lead to an increase in fractures of the ribs, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, hips, and wrists after slight trauma (occurs predominantly in postmenopausal women)
carpal tunnel syndrome
a common nerve entrapment disorder of the wrist caused by compression of the median nerve. Symptoms include pain and paresthesia in portions of the hand and fingers
disease in which an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood causes sodium urate crystals (tophi) to be deposited in the joints, especially that of the great toe, producing arthritis
an infection caused by a bacteria (Borrelia burgdorferi) carried by deer ticks and transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick. Symptoms, caused by the body's immune response to bacteria, vary and may include rash at the site of the tick bite and flulike symptoms such as fever, headache, joint pain, and fatigue. Lyme disease was first reported in Lyme, Conn., in 1975. The primary treatment is antibiotics. Left untreated, Lyme disease can mimic several musculoskeletal diseases mentioned in this chapter
specialist in treating and diagnosing diseases and disorders of the foot, including medical and surgical treatment
branch of medicine dealing with the study and treatment of diseases and abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system
the crackling sound heard when two bones rub against each other or grating caused by the rubbing together of dry surfaces of a joint. (_______ is also used to describe the crackling sound heard with pneumonia or the sound heard from the discharge of gas from the bowel.)
muscular dystrophy (MD)
group of hereditary diseases characterized by degeneration of muscle and weakness
myasthenia gravis (MG)
chronic disease characterized by muscle weakness and thought to be caused by a defect in the transmission of impulses from nerve to muscle cell. The face, larynx, and throat are frequently affected; no true paralysis of the muscles exists.
total hip arthroplasty
indicated for degenerative joint disease or rheumatoid arthritis. This operation commonly involves replacement of the hip joint with a metallic femoral head and a plastic-coated acetabulum.
peripheral nervous system
made up of cranial nerves, which carry impulses between the brain and neck and head, and spinal nerves, which carry messages between the spinal cord and abdomen, limbs, and chest
central nervous system
consists of the brain and spinal chord. provides for mental activities such as thought, memory, and emotions, detects changes inside and outside the body, evaluates sensory information, and sends directions to muscles or glands in response
largest portion of the brain, divided into left and right hemispheres. The _________controls the skeletal muscles, interprets general senses (such as temperature, pain, and touch), and contains centers for sight and hearing. Intellect, memory, and emotional reactions also take place in the cerebrum.
located under the posterior portion of the cerebrum. Its function is to assist in the coordination of skeletal muscles and to maintain balance (also called hindbrain)
passes through the vertebral canal extending from the medulla oblongata to the level of the second lumbar vertebra. The spinal cord conducts nerve impulses to and from the brain and initiates reflex action to sensory information without input from the brain.
located between the pons and spinal cord. It contains centers that control respiration, heart rate, and the muscles in the blood vessel walls, which assist in determining blood pressure.
cordlike structure made up of fibers that carries impulses from one part of the body to another. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
degenerative disease characterized by sclerotic patches along the brain and spinal cord. Signs and symptoms are variable and fluctuate over the course of the disease. More common symptoms include fatigue, balance, and coordination impairments, numbness, and vision problems.
pertaining to below the dura mater, tumor of blood, a collection of blood resulting from a broken blood vessel
occurs when there is an interruption of blood supply to a region of the brain, depriving nerve cells in the affected area of oxygen and nutrients. The cells cannot perform and may be damaged or die within minutes. The parts of the body controlled by the involved cells will experience dysfunction. Speech, movement, memory, and other CNS functions may be affected in varying degrees. Ischemic stroke is a result of a blocked blood vessel. Hemorrhagic stroke is a result of bleeding. (also called cerebrovascular accident [CVA], or brain attack)
chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Signs and symptoms include resting tremors of the hands and feet, rigidity, expressionless face, and shuffling gait. It usually occurs after the age of 50 years.
increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain, which can cause enlargement of the cranium in infants
condition characterized by recurrent seizures; a general term given to a group of neurologic disorders, all characterized by abnormal electrical activity in the brain
disease characterized by early dementia, confusion, loss of recognition of persons or familiar surroundings, restlessness, and impaired memory
viral disease that affects the peripheral nerves and causes blisters on the skin that follow the course of the affected nerves (also called herpes zoster)
condition characterized by lack of muscle control and partial paralysis, caused by a brain defect or lesion present at birth or shortly after
lumbar puncture (LP)
insertion of a needle into the subarachnoid space usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae. It is performed for many reasons, including the removal of cerebrospinal fluid for diagnostic purposes (also called spinal tap)
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan)
a noninvasive technique that produces sectional images of soft tissues of the brain or spine through a strong magnetic field. Unlike a CT scan, MRI produces images without use of radiation. It is used to visualize tumors, edema, multiple sclerosis, and herniated disks
paralysis of half (right or left side of the body); stroke is the most common cause of __________
state of being unaware of surroundings and incapable of responding to stimuli as a result of injury, shock, illness, or drugs
injury to the brain caused by major or minor head trauma; symptoms include vertigo, headache, and possible loss of consciousness
a mood disturbance characterized by feelings of sadness, despair, discouragement, hopelessness, lack of joy, altered sleep patterns, and difficulty with decision making and daily function. Depression ranges from normal feelings of sadness (resulting from a proportional to personal loss or tragedy), through dysthymia (chronic depressive neurosis), to major depression (also referred to as clinical depression, mood disorder).
a disorder characterized by intrusive, unwanted thoughts that result in the tendency to perform repetitive acts or rituals (compulsions), usually as a means of releasing tension or anxiety
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
clear, colorless fluid contained in the ventricles that flows through the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord. It cushions the brain and spinal cord from shock, transports nutrients, and clears metabolic waste.
paralysis of muscles on one side of the face, usually a temporary condition. Signs include a sagging mouth on the affected side and nonclosure of the eyelid
an eating disorder characterized by uncontrolled binge eating followed by purging (induced vomiting)
an eating disorder characterized by a disturbed perception of body image resulting in failure to maintain body weight, intensive fear of gaining weight, pronounced desire for thinness, and, in females amenorrhea