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APUSH Imperialism & Progressive Era 1890-1914
Terms in this set (79)
Secretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price.
W.E.B Du Bois
Most influential advocate of full political, economic, and social equality for Black Americans during the Progressive Era
Founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1909
Advocated for intellectual development of a "talented tenth" of African Americans
Against Booker T. Washington's plan for Black progress
Alaska Purchase 1867
Ended Russian territorial presence and completed U.S. expansion on North American main land.
Congress agreed to purchase; but it would take many years to americans to see the value in it and stop referring to it as "Seward's Folly"
A policy of economic, political, and social of one country by another. Industrialized countries sought control of other countries for raw materials and new markets.
Darwin's concept of the survival of the fittest was applied not only to competition in the business world but also to competition among nations. Therefore, in the international arena, the US had to demonstrate its strength by acquiring territories overseas, a sort of continuing of the manifest destiny
Causes of the War:
- Battleship USS Maine was sunk mysteriously in Havana harbor
- Circulation battle between the "yellow journalism" newspapers of Pulitzer and Hearst reveal sensational stories that played a significant role in arousing public support for a war to liberate Cuba and avenge the sinking
- Spain relinquished to the U.S. control of Guam, Puerto Rico, Cuba and the Philippines
De Lome Letter
Spanish Ambassador's letter that was illegally removed from the U.S. Mail and published by American newspapers. It criticized President McKinley in insulting terms. Used by war hawks as a pretext for war in 1898.
An explosion from a mine in the Bay of Havanna crippled the warship Maine. The U.S. blamed Spain for the incident and used it as an excuse to go to war with Spain.
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
Annexation of the Philippines
Anti-Imperialism League opposed annexation, arguing that it violated America's long-established commitment to the principles of self-determination and anti-colonialism
Supports argued that American had a moral responsibility to "civilize" the islands and also pointed out that they could become a valuable trade partner
A United States naval officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War, U.S. naval commander who led the American attack on the Philippines
Volunteer regiment of US Cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
America attained Hawaii by forcing the Hawaiian King to sign a constitution and reduced his power. The Queen Liliuokalani gave up her country because she didn't want to go to war with America. Hawaii became the 50th State
Wanted due to farming possibilities/sugar
A U.S. territory; the U.S. gained it from Spain as a result of the Spanish-American War. People here have U.S. citizenship, and many here would like it to be a U.S. state.
Determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens.
Platt Amendment 1901
It stated that Cuba could not make any commitments that would take away its sovereignty and could not contract debts that were beyond its incoming revenue. It gave the U.S. the right to intervene in Cuba whenever the U.S. felt Cuba's independence was at stake. It also gave the U.S. two military bases in Cuba
Secretary of State under McKinley and Roosevelt who pioneered the Open-Door policy and Panama canal
Spheres of Influence
Areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China)
Open Door Policy 1899
A policy proposed by the US, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Boxer Rebellion 1899
Rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty 1901
Great Britain recognized U.S. Sphere of Influence over the Panama canal zone provided the canal itself remained neutral. U.S. given full control over construction and management of the canal.
The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic
Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.
President Theodore Roosevelt
26th President. Increased size of Navy, "Great White Fleet". Added Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine. "Big Stick" policy. Received Nobel Peace Prize for mediation of end of Russo-Japanese war. Later arbitrated split of Morocco between Germany and France.
Reasons it was issued:
- Worried that the Dominican Republic and other Latin American nations would default on debts owed to European banks which could then provoke European military intervention
Principles and Consequences:
- Asserted America's right to intervene in the affairs of Central American and the Caribbean which expanded America's role there
- Claimed America's right to act as an international police power
Good Neighbor Policy
United States sought greater cooperation with Latin American to develop a hemispheric common front against Fascism
Roosevelt administration formally renounced U.S. armed intervention in the affairs of Latin America and participated in reciprocal trade agreements
War between Russia and Japan over imperial possessions. Japan emerges victorious.
Treaty of Portsmouth 1905
The U.S. mediated the end of the Russo-Japanese War. Negotiating the treaty in the U.S. increased U.S. prestige. Roosevelt received a Nobel Peace Prize for the mediation. Japan won, but did not receive everything it conquered.
Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them
Great White Fleet
16 American battleships, painted white, sent around the world to display American naval power
Root-Takahira Agreement 1908
Agreement between US and Japan officially recognizing the territorial sovereignty of each nation
President William Howard Taft
Endorsed by Roosevelt because he pledged to carry on progressive program, then he didn't appoint any Progressives to the Cabinet, actively pursued anti-trust law suits
During Taft's presidency U.S. policy in Latin American was primarily drive by concerns for U.S. economic and strategic interests in the region
Ex: Taft used American bankers to refinance the foreign debt of Nicaragua
Henry Cabot Lodge
A United States Senator who encouraged America to expand in order to economically compete with other countries.
A leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations
Lodge Corollary 1912
A corollary to the Monroe Doctrine forbidding any foreign power or foreign interest of any kind to acquire sufficient territory in the Western Hemisphere so as to put that government in "practical power of control".
President Woodrow Wilson
28th president known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in the presidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and, by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses freedom to compete.
Roosevelt's progressive political policy that favored heavy government intervention in order to assure social justice
Political platform during campaign of 1912
Foreign policy proposed by President Wilson to condemn imperialism, spread democracy, and promote peace rather than focus on "dollar diplomacy"
Tampico Incident 1914
Some U.S. sailors were arrested in Tampico, Mexico. President Wilson used the incident to send U.S. troops into northern Mexico. His real intent was to unseat the Huerta government there. After the Niagara Falls Conference, Huerta abdicated and the confrontation ended.
The South American countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, which attempted to mediate a dispute between Mexico and the United States in 1914.
A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution of 1910. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata.
Wilson ordered General Pershing to pursue Pancho Villa into Mexico. They were in nothern Mexico for months without being able to capture Villa. Growing possibility of U.S. entry into World War I caused Wilson to withdraw Pershing's troops.
Reform effort, generally centered in urban areas, whose aims included returning control of the government to the people, restoring economic opportunities, and correcting injustices in American life.
William James' concept held that truth was to be tested, above all, by the practical consequences of an idea, by action rather than theories - ultimate test of truth is experience, not logic → did not believe in the existence of absolute truth
He was a philosopher who believed in "learning by doing" which formed the foundation of progressive education. He believed that the teachers' goal should be "education for life and that the workbench is just as important as the blackboard."
Early twentieth-century journalists who exposed illegal business practices, social injustices, and corrupt urban political bosses
Notable journalists include: Upton Sinclair, Jacob Riis and Ida Tarbell
Henry Demarest Lloyd
He wrote the book "Wealth Against Commonwealth" in 1894. It was part of the progressive movement and the book's purpose was to show the wrong in the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company.
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.
"How the Other Half Lives" 1890, expose the political and social injustices and the horrid conditions of the New York City's tenement housing in his most famous work for the poor and immigrants
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
A government printed ballot of uniform size and shape to be cast in secret that was adopted by many states around 1890 in order to reduce the voting fraud associated with party printed ballots cast in public.
A primary where voters directly select the candidates who will run for office
Created by Robert La Folette
Calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers
Anthracite Coal Strike 1902
Strike led by the United Mine Workers of America
Mediated with the active involvement of President Theodore Roosevelt - marked the first time the deferral government intervened in a labor dispute as a neutral arbitrator
Roosevelt wanted to break up trusts, but made a distinction between regulating "good trusts" which through efficiency and low prices dominated to a market and breaking up "bad trusts" which harmed the public and stifled competition.
Elkins Act 1903
Sponsored by President Theodore Roosevelt, provided for the regulation of interstate railroads. The act forbade rebates or other rate reductions to shipping companies. Railroads were not allowed to offer rates different from the published rates.
Hepburn Act 1906
This act tightened existing railroad regulation. Empowered the Interstate Commerce Commission to set maximum railroad rates and to examine railroad's financial records.
Wrote a novel called The Jungle in 1906 that exposed appalling conditions in the Chicago meatpacking industry - example of a muckraking novel
Helped bring about passed of Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act
Pure Food and Drug Act 1906
Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Meat Inspection Act 1906
Made it so that meat would be inspected by the government from coral to can. It began a quality rating system as well as increased the sanitation requirements for meat producers.
A political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future.
Newlands Reclamation Act 1902
Authorized federal funds from public land sales to pay for irrigation and land development projects, mainly in the dry Western states
Allows the federal government to collect income tax
Payne Aldrich Tariff 1909
Taft signed this law that increased import taxes. This was a very regressive tax - would be difficult to get Congress to lower taxes on the poor and middle class
Political party that desired economic and political philosophy favoring public or government control of property and income. Their goal was to end the capitalist system, distribute wealth more equally, and nationalize American industries
Bull Moose party
A name given to the Progressive Party, formed to support Theodore Roosevelt's candidacy for the presidency in 1912.
Underwood Tariff 1913
Pushed through Congress by Woodrow Wilson, this 1913 tariff reduced average tariff duties by almost 15% and established a graduated income tax
Federal Reserve Act 1914
This act created a central banking system, consisting of twelve regional banks governed by the Federal Reserve Board. It was an attempt to provide the United States with a sound yet flexible currency. The Board it created still plays a vital role in the American economy today.
Clayton Antitrust Act 1914
Corrected the problems of the Sherman Antitrust Act; outlawed certain practices that restricted competition; unions on strike could no longer be considered violating the antitrust acts
Federal Trade Commission 1914
A government agency established to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy, support antitrust suits
Niagara Movement 1905
W.E.B. Du Bois and other young activists came together at Niagara Falls to demand full black equality. Demanded that African Americans get right to vote in states where it had been taken away, segregation be abolished, and many discriminatory barriers be removed. Declared commitment for freedom of speech, brotherhood of all peoples, and respect for workingman
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored people
Rejected Booker T. Washington's gradualism and separatism
Focused on using the courts to achieve equality and justice
National Urban 1910
An interracial organization formed to help solve social problems facing African Americans who lived in the cities
National Women's Party 1916
A women's organization that fought for women's rights during the early 20th century in the United States, particularly for the right to vote on the same terms as men
Gave women the right to vote
League of Women Voters 1920
League advocating for women's rights, among them the right for women to serve on juries and equal pay laws
How the Other Half Lives 1890
Jacob Riis provided poignant pictures that gave a human face to the poverty and despair experienced by immigrants living in New York City
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