MEMORY - BADDELEY & HITCH"S
Baddely & Hitch'es working memory addition to Atkinson-Shiffrin multi-store model of memory. Craik & Lockart's "Levels of Processing" theory of how memory works
Terms in this set (20)
loss of memory, either partial or complete, temporary or permanent
Atkinson-Shiffrin Multi-store model
a model that represents memory as consisting of three separate components called the sensory register, the short term store and long term store, and distinguishes between structural features and control processes.
Baddeley and Hitch's model of working memory
a multi-component model of working memory that describes its structure and function in terms of three separate but interacting components called the phonological loop, the visual spatial sketch-pad and the central executive; a fourth component called the episodic buffer was added later by Baddeley.
Craik and Lockhart's levels of processing framework
a conceptual description of memory that emphasises the depth at which information is processed during learning determines how well it is stored; levels of processing range from very shallow to very deep.
long-term (explicit) memory for specific facts and events that can be brought consciously to mind and be explicitly "declared"; comprises episodic memory and semantic memory.
the process of linking new information in a meaningful way with information already stored in memory or with other new information to aid its storage and retrieval from long-term memory.
when information in memory can be consciously or intentionally retrieved and stated.
a declarative, episodic, long-term memory sub-system that stores information about specific events or personal experiences.
a component of Baddeley and Hitch's model of working memory (added in 2000) that enables all its components to interact with long-term memory.
when retrieval occurs without conscious or intentional effort but the memory can be expressed through actions or behaviour
repetition of information so that it can be kept in short-term (or working) memory for longer than the usual maximum of about 18 sec.s.
a component of Baddeley and Hitch's model of working memory that stores a limited number of speech-like sounds for a short period.
the long-term (implicit) memory of how to do something
the serial position effect of superior recall for items at the end of a list
the process of locating and recovering stored information from memory so that we are consciously aware of it
a declarative (explicit) long-term memory system that stores information about the world
Serial position effect
a research finding that the free recall of items in a list is best for items at the end of the list, then the beginning, and worst for the middle words of the list
Short-term memory (STM)
a memory system or sub-system(s) with limited storage capacity and duration in which we can manipulate new incoming information and information retrieved from long-term memory; also called working memory
in Atkinson-Shiffrin multistorey model, a built-in, fixed feature of memory that does not vary from ne situation to another
a sub-system of memory in which information we are consciously aware of is actively "worked on"; information from sensory memory is processed here and information is retrieved from long-term memory; also called short-term memory