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Terms in this set (31)
the study of crime
observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Nature vs. Nurture
Do genes (nature) or environmental factors (nurture) contribute more to a person's being?
A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgement
school shooter. 1966 at University of Texas. killed 13 injured 32. also killed wife and mother. autopsy showed tumor on his amygdala which is the part of the brain responsible for fear.
railroad worker who survived a severe brain injury that dramatically changed his personality and behavior; case played a role in the development of the understanding of the localization of brain function
selecting an immediate, small outcome over a delayed, larger outcome
prefrontal cortex (PFC)
the part of the frontal lobe that is just behind the forehead and is responsible for executive processing
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
the idea that two modes of thinking exist within the human brain, one for intuitive emotional responses and one for analytical reasoning
System One Processing
Fast, unconscious, intuitive, often based on emotions and past experiences.
System Two Processing
Slow, conscious, rational and uses logic and is based on consequences.
Awareness of ourselves and our environment
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.
an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning
an Israeli psychologist and Nobel laureate, who is notable for his work on the psychology of judgment and decision-making and behavioral economics
ventromedial prefrontal cortex
Iowa Gambling Task (IGT)
a behavioral task in which subjects try to win money by drawing cards from one of four decks, each of which has a different mixture of rewards and penalties of various sizes; optimal performance requires learning which decks are to be avoided, based on accumulated experience
two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion.
A woman with no working amygdala who was unable to experience fear
Male sex hormone
flight or fight response
Biological reaction to alarming stressors that musters the body's resources (for example, blood flow and respiration) to resist or flee a threat.
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (adrenaline and cortisol) that help arouse the body in times of stress.
Removing the testes to prevent unwanted breeding, leads to better meat, and results in less fighting and aggressive behavior among males.
The gradual change in a species over time
survival of the fittest
Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called natural selection
The belief that genes are the major determining factor in human behavior.
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