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Period 3: 1754-1800 (ch 4-5)
Terms in this set (39)
when and what were the imperial wars?
1689-1697 King William's War
1702-1713 Queen Anne's War
1744-1748 King George's War
1754-1763 The Seven Years War/French and Indian War
What was the Albany Plan of Union? (1763)
Plan for the colonies to unite under a strong central government—Proposed by Ben Franklin
could collect troops and taxes
never took effect -> no unity (join or die)
The Peace of Paris (1763)
Britain got French Canada and Spanish Florida
ended the Seven Years War- the French did not have a foothold in America
extended British control in North America- Strongest Navy
Effects of Peace of Paris
abandoned salutary neglect
- King George wanted colonies to bear the cost of maintaining the British empire
Conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area
- British sent troops to end uprising
Proclamation of 1763
law forbidding English colonists to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains
- To avoid conflict with Natives
Sugar (Revenue) Act
law passed by the British Parliament setting taxes on molasses and sugar imported by the colonies
Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
Taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers
First tax directly on the colonists
Stamp Act Congress (1765)
protest the Stamp Act -> the Sons and Daughters of Liberty
- intimidating tax agents
- main form of protesting was boycotting
Parliament repealed the Stamp Act
This act that confirmed parliamentary authority over the colonies "in all cases whatsoever"
1767, repealed in 1770
tax on imported glass, paper and tea
allowed search of private homes for smuggled goods without a warrant only a writ of assistance (only needed probable cause)
suspended assembly for defiance of the Quartering Act
Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania
by John Dickinson, argued that Parliament had no right to tax the colonies for revenue (no taxation without representation)
British troops fired on and killed (5) American colonists
- denounced by Samuel Adams
Commitees of Correspondence
Underground networks of communication and propaganda, established by Samuel Adams, that sustained colonial resistance and were used to spread word of any new English aggression.
Boston Tea Party
protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Native Americans dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.
Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)
1. the Port Act
- closed the Boston port until the tea destroyed in the Boston Tea Party was paid for
2. the Massachusetts Government Act
- reduced power of Massachusetts government and strengthened Royal legislature
3. The Administration of Justice Act
- allowed royal officials accused of crimes to be tried in Britain instead of the colonies
4. expanded the Quartering Acts
Extended boundaries of Quebec
established Roman Catholicism as the official religion
set up a government without a representative assembly
why was this a threat to the colonists?
First Continental Congress
delegates from all colonies (except Georgia) sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts
how was American independence viewed by this time? (Late 1700's)
did most colonists want independence?
No most colonist didn't want independence, most wanted to just protest parliament and restore the relationship with Britain
how were the delegates diverse? and what leaders were in these groups?
Radical: Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, John Adams
Moderates: George Washington, John Dickinson
Conservatives: John Jay, Joseph Galloway
what was adopted in the First Continental Congress
1. It endorsed Suffolk Resolves
- repealed intolerable acts
2. Passed the Declaration and Resolves
- colonial grievances and restore colonial rights
3. Created Continental Association
- enforced economic sanctions of the Suffolk Resolves
4. If colonial rights were not recognized they would meet again
how did the king react to the First Continental Congress?
angrily dismissed it and declared the colonies in a state of rebellion
Lexington and Concord
the first battle of the American Revolution
- British attempted to seize colonial weapons
Bunker Hill (Breed's Hill)
The first major victory for the patriots, and ends any type of peace between the colonists and British
- leads towards the discussion of the Declaration of Independence.
What was the purpose of the Declaration of the Causes and Necessities for Taking Up Arms?
called on colonies to provide troops
Olive Branch Petition
An offer of peace sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George lll
- which was declined
Parliamentary Prohibitory Act
declared the colonies in rebellion
1776 Thomas Paine's
urged the colonies to declare independence and establish a republican government
- helped convince colonists to support the Revolution.
Declaration of Independence
July 4th, 1776
asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
- by the second Continental Congress
how was the population of colonist split? what two groups?
American Patriots 40%
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution
the French were convinced to give the U.S. military support
- ended the British threat
Last battle of the war of independence
- British surrendered
What ended the Revolutionary War?
Treaty of Paris 1783
State governments all had Constitutions, what did they have in common?
list/bill/declaration of basic rights and freedoms
separation of powers into three branches
the Articles of Confederation
one house legislature (Congress)
established central government but was weak
What were the powers under the Articles of Confederation?
could declare war -> could not demand troops from the colonies
could borrow money -> could not collect taxes
could make laws -> could not enforce them
What did the Articles of Confederation accomplish?
won the war
Land Ordinance 1785
- regulated selling western lands
Northwest Ordinance 1787
- rules for creating new states
mayor problems with the Articles of Confederation
- could not repay war debts
- little respect for US because it could not repay its debt or take action
- internal rebellions
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