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AP Chapter 3

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Feudalism
A social system based on a rigid social and political hierarchy based on the ownership of land
Puritans
a Protestant religious sect that sought to reform the Church of England in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
Slavery
the ownership, for forced labor, of one people by another
French and Indian War
a way fought between France and England, and allied Indians, from 1754 to 1763; resulted in France's expulsion from the New World
Popular Sovereignty
the concept that the citizens are the ultimate source of political power
"Common Sense"
1776 pamphlet by Thomas Paine that persuaded many Americans to support the Revolutionary cause
Declaration of Independence
the political document that dissolved the colonial ties between the United States and Britain
constitution
the rules that establish a government
Articles of Confederation
the first constitution of the United States (1777) creating an association of states with weak central government
confederation
a government in which independent states unite for common purpose, but retain their own sovereignty
Popular Tyranny
the unrestrained power of the people
Shays's Rebellion
a grassroots uprising (1787) by armed Massachusetts farmers protesting foreclosures
Constitutional Convention
the assembly of fifty-five delegates in the summer of 1787 to recast the Articles of Confederation; the result was the U.S. Constitution
Federalism
a political system in which the power is divided between the central and regional units
Federalists
supporters of the constitution who favored a strong central government
Anti-Federalists
advocates of the states' rights who opposed the Constitution
Virginia Plan
a proposal at the Constitutional Convention that congressional representation be based on population, thus favoring the large states
New Jersey Plan
a proposal at the Constitutional Convention that congressional representation be equal, thus favoring small states
The Great Compromise
the constitutional solution to congressional representation: equal votes in the Senate, votes by population in the House
Three-fifths Compromise
the formula for counting five slaves as three people for purposes of representation that reconciled northern and southern factions at the Constitutional Convention
Ratification
the process through which a proposal is formally approved and adopted by vote
The Federalist Papers
a series of essays written in support of the Constitution to build support for its ratification
Factions
groups of citizens united by some common passion or interest and opposed to the rights of other citizens or to the interests of the whole community
Bill of Rights
a summary of citizen rights guaranteed and protected by a government; added to the Constitution as its first ten amendments in order to achieve ratification