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Chapter 5: The Civilization of Ancient Rome- Inquizitive
Terms in this set (27)
Unlike the mythical Romulus and Remus, the Etruscans were real people whose practices influenced Roman development. (T/F)
"he Etruscans occupied north-central Italy and interacted with the Latins, who settled the Tiber river region by the tenth century B.C.E."
Roman identity centered on a respect for innovation and cultural liberalism. (T/F)
"The core of Roman identity was mos maiorum, or "the custom of the ancestors." This overt Roman devotion to imitating the behavior of their ancestors made them culturally conservative and reluctant to adopt social changes."
What portion of the population were plebeians in the early Roman Republic?
about 98 percent
"The correct answer is "almost 98 percent"
Which two broad regions were unified by the Roman Empire?
Western Europe and the Hellenistic world
Augustus held the title princeps, which means "king" or "emperor" (T/F)
"Princeps means "first man." Augustus denied that he was a monarch."
Following the Punic Wars and the expansion of Roman territory and wealth, Roman starkly disagreed with one another about changes in Roman culture. (T/F)
What did the story of the overthrow of Tarquinus Superbus communicate about Roman values?
King are corrupt, a woman's duty is to remain chaste
Which events or people were part of the legendary founding of Rome, rather than from the historical record of the Roman past?
Romulus and Remus, Aeneas of Troy, Early Romans abducted Sabine wives
What political rights did plebeians have by the time the Punic Wars began in 264 B.C.E.?
They could hold elected office, the assembly could make laws without Senate approval
What problems were the Gracchi brothers' reforms meant to address?
a shortage of soldiers, unemployment anger among plebians
Augustus wielded tremendous power through his control of the Roman _____. This enabled him to make significant _____ changes within the empire. For example, he extended centralized influence over the economy by introducing a new _____. He bureaucratized the _____ by installing his own representatives and paying them set sealaries. He also recorded information about the empire's population by conducting a census.
military, administrative, system of coinage, system of tax collection, census
Rome required that its soldiers be _____. They were also required to serve for _____ at a time. As a result of their absence from home, many soldiers lost their land to local aristocrats, who amassed property into a giant _____. _____ worked these giant estates while many returning soldiers moved to _____ and struggles with unemployment.
landholders, years, latifundia, Slaves, cities
Put these events that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic in chronological order.
Etruscans had a confederation of city-states in north-central Italy. Early Romans negotiated an important set of agreements with their neighbors, called the Latin Right. Romans expanded their territory and replaced their kind with two elected consuls. The Law of the Twelve Tables turned custom into law, which eventually improved life for plebeians.
How did Julius Caesar consolidate Roman influence in Hispania and Gaul?
He settled Roman army veterans in Gaul and Hispania, he gave roman citizenship to the residents of Gaul and Hispania
The Pax Romana refers to a time of peace and tranquility between Romans of different social classes. (T/F)
"The Pax Romana refers to a period of relative peace because a single empire ruled the vast territory from Britain to Persia."
Like _____, Rome highly valued military service and training. Though the Romans initially adopted the _____ from Greece, they replaced it with smaller, more flexible divisions. Each Roman soldier was part of a _____, a 120-man flexible specialized, group of fighters. At times when it needed fast, decisive military leadership, the Roman Republic replaced its two elected _____ with a single _____.
Sparta, phalanx, maniple, consuls, dictator
What developments laid the groundwork for Julius Caesar's eventual control of Rome? Put the events into the correct chronological order.
Roman expansion, as a result of the Punic Wars, gave rise to significant political changes.
The Punic Wars began.
Roman conquest of the eastern Mediterranean changed the Roman culture and economy.
The Gracchi brothers attempted political and land reforms.
Marius's reforms shifted soldiers' loyalties from the state to their own commanders.
Fill in the blanks to complete the passage about Julius Caesar's rise to power.
Julius Caesar claimed power through a civil war. First, Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus formed a triumvirate and asserted that their goal was to restore the Roman Republic.
After Crassus died, Pompey was elected consul and began to challenge Caesar, who remained in Gaul. Caesar responded by threatening Rome and beating Pompey's forces in Greece, which enabled him to take sole control of the empire.
How did Octavian establish the Principate? Put the following events in chronological order.
Octavian wanted to claim power and avenge Caesar's death, but Mark Antony and other rivals stood in his way.
After fighting one another in Gaul, Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus formed a triumvirate and avenged Caesar's death.
Octavian considered Antony, who ruled Egypt beside Cleopatra, to be a threat to his power.
Octavian's forces defeated Egypt's navy at Actium, making Egypt a Roman province.
His rival defeated, Octavian took multiple titles but insisted that he was not a king.
What did Augustus do to promote and protect the mos maiorum?
He prohibited the worship of foreign deities.
He instituted laws to promote marriage and increase childbearing.
"Augustus was very careful not to assume the title rex (king) precisely because centralizing power under a single individual was seen as contrary to the mos maiorum. He exercised imperial power, but denied that he was a monarch."
As it established more organized control over its vast territory, what services did the Roman government provide to its urban residents?
police forces and fire brigades
roads and bridges
public drinking water
Match each event or city to the correct location by dragging the label to the correct arrow.
The grounds for Augustus's Principate were laid by successive leaders. Match each precedent with the individual who first did it.
If a leader holds multiple official titles at once, he can act like a king without being called "king."
Military success and popularity among the plebeians can lead to consulship.
A powerful general can use the army to force the civilian leadership to do his will.
Romans lauded Cincinnatus as a hero. Which of his qualities did they consider heroic?
He was reluctant to wield power.
He was an able military leader.
During the Punic Wars, the Hellenistic kingdoms aided Carthage in its contest with Rome. What does this suggest about the conflict?
The correct answer is "The wars were a regional Mediterranean power struggle."
Which of these practices best illustrates the core Roman idea of patria potestas?
Patria potestas means "fatherly power" and includes a man's power of life or death over his own family members.
Which Hellenistic cultural imports flourished in Rome?
cult of Isis
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