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SAT II Biology - The Cell
Terms in this set (76)
All living things are made up of cells, cells come from preexisting ones, cells are the structural and functional unit of living things
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Invented the first microscope and to observe living things under the microscope
Used the microscope to study cork tissue, first one to use the term cell
Studied living tissue under the microscope, concluded all plants are made up of cells
Concluded all animals have cells
Studied cell reproduction, concluded all cells come from preexisting ones
Cells that have no internal membranes or internal organelles, like nuclei or mitochondria.
Cells that contain internal membranes; contain nuclei
theory of endosymbiosis
This theory states that cell organelles, like mitochondria, were once tiny, free-living prokaryotic organisms that took up permanent residence inside larger prokaryotic organisms.
Controls the cells function, contains the cells DNA, RNA comes out, contains genetic material, surrounded by a double membrane
A specialized structure in the nucleus, formed from various chromosomes and active in the synthesis of ribosomes
A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
System of internal membranes within the cytoplasm. do not have ribosomes, functions in transport of substances such as proteins within the cytoplasm
rough endoplasmic reticulum
System of internal membranes within the cytoplasm. Membranes are rough due to the presence of ribosomes. functions in transport of substances such as proteins within the cytoplasm
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
Cell organelle that consists of digestive (hydrolytic) enzymes and its principal site of intracellular digestion in the cell.
Type of digestion in which food is digested inside specialized cells that pass nutrients to other cells by diffusion.
Programmed cell death
An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration; uses oxygen to break down organic molecules and synthesize ATP
An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
A organelle inside the cell that stores water, food, and waste for the cell.
A small cavity or sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell; forms when part of the cell membrane surrounds the materials to be taken into the cell or transported within the cell
An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water. (photosyntheisis)
A stacked portion of the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast. Grana function in the light reactions of photosynthesis
In plants, the solution that surrounds the thylakoids in a chloroplast.
Organelles that store starches or oils
Organelles that contain pigments used in photosynthesis
A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement
A hollow rod of the protein tubulin in the cytoplasm of all eukaryote cells that make up cilia, flagella, spindle fibers, and other cytoskeletal structures of cells
A solid rod of actin protein in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells, making up part of the cytoskeleton and acting alone or with myosin to cause cell contraction.
A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells
A type of motor protein that associates into filaments that interact with actin filaments to cause cell contraction
A structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells that functions as a microtubule-organizing center and is important during cell division. A centrosome has two centrioles.
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion
A long, whip-like filament that helps in cell motility. Many bacteria are flagellated, and sperm are flagellated.
A rigid barrier that protect and maintain the shape of a plant and other cells, made of cellulose in plant cells, chitin in fungi cells
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
Fluid portion of cytoplasm
Also known as the cell membrane; the cells outer boundary
Membrane is a fluid structure with a "mosaic" of various proteins embedded in or attached to a bilayer of phospholipids.
A double layer of phospholipids that makes up plasma and organelle membranes
Large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
A carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into the cell.
A property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot
Having a higher concentration of solute than another solution.
Having a lower concentration of solute than another solution
Describes a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell
Movement of substances through a cell membrane without the use of cellular energy; includes diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion.
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
The diffusion of water across a membrane. Goes down the gradient to an area of high concentration.
the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins
swollen as from a fluid; bloated
The pressure that water molecules exert against the cell wall
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient
In protists, an organelle that accumulates water and then releases it periodically to maintain osmotic pressure.
An active transport process by which materials are expelled from a cell
Active transport process where a cell engulfs materials with a portion of the cell's plasma membrane and releases the contents inside of the cell.
A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
A form of endocytosis that involves the formation of a membrane vesicle, which engulfs a particle such as bacterium
A "false foot" or temporary bulge of cytoplasm used for feeding and movement in some protozoans.
The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles. The vesicles contain proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in.
Intake of nutrients
Breakdown of food substances into simpler forms that can be absorbed and used
metabolic processes which produce ATP
Distribution of molecules from one part of a cell to another or to another cell.
ability to maintain homeostasis
combining of small molecules or substances to make more complex ones
removal of metabolic wastes
removal of undigested waste
ability to generate offspring
ability to respond to stimuli
movement from one place to another
sum total of all life function
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