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Social Constructions

While such notions as the beginning of the new millenium are____, they are powerful determinants of human behavior.


Culture is acquired through____, which is the lifelong process of learning culture.


_____ is the process through which society's demands become part of the individual's psychological identification and act to control his/her behavior.


The universal tendency to deprecate the ways of people from other societies as wrong, old-fashioned, inefficient, or immoral and to think of the ways of one's own group as superior is known as ________.


________ is/are shared beliefs about the physical, social, and metaphysical worlds.


________ are highly salient norms whose violation is considered important enough by society to merit severe punishment

the people in power

The criteria used to delineate types of norms, their degree of importance, and the severity of punishment are determined by ________.


________ are the criteria used in evaluating objects, acts, feelings, or events as to their relative desirability, merit, or correctness.


________ are the behavioral expectations for the people who occupy particular social positions.

social construction of reality

The ________ refers to the process whereby people learn how to define reality from other people in interaction and by learning the culture.

Cultural Relativity

_______ is the argument that customs should not be evaluated by our standards but theirs.

Culturally the US has been people largely by immigrants who shared a common culture.

dentify which of the following is not an explanation of why the value system in the United States is unique.

Protestan Ethic

The ________ is the religious belief that emphasizes hard work and continual striving to prove by one's success that one is saved.

Parents push fewer structured activities and more family time for their children.

Identify which of the following is not an example of the value placed on success (individual achievement) in the United States.

Deferred gratification

________ is the willingness to deny immediate pleasure for later reward and is the hallmark of the successful person in the United States.

Americans value "law and order" and report to the IRS those who cheat on taxes

Identify which of the following is not an example of the discrepancy between American values and behavior.

Material Progress

________ creates a belief among people that "work pays off" and that "having things" is a desirable way of life.

to which you wish you belong

Reference groups refer to groups

while humans make culture, culture constrains humans

The paradox of culture is that


Achieved status is illustrated by

cultural diffusion

The spread of one society's cultural characteristics to another is called

the contradictory forces of globalization and parachialism

Barber's phrase "Jihad vs. McDonaldization" refers to

they have internalized the norms of society

Individuals feel guilt or shame because

capitalism and private property

The environmental crisis can be traced to

a relativity cohesive cultural system that differs from the dominant culture

According to Yinger, a subculture refers to

1) The first technique is to observe the reward punishment system of the culture. 2) To determine and observe the choices that the people in the culture make consistently. 3) To determine what gives individuals in a culture high status in the eyes of their followers.

Describe three techniques of determining a culture's values.

looking glass self

The concept of ________ refers to the idea that people's self-perception is a result of their interpretation of how others judge them.

generalized other

The ________ is Mead's concept that refers to the internalization of society's expectations.


According to Mead's theory, during the ________ stage, children act out the behaviors associated with various social positions and thus develop a rudimentary understanding of adult roles.


Freud emphasized ________ as well as social factors in personality development.

they provide a uniform plan for socializing children

Identify which of the following is not true of families.

their is a greater emphasis on news, rather than on entertainment

Identify which of the following is not a consequence of the increasing concentration of the media in the hands of a few corporations.


________ societies provide members with consistent messages regarding social norms and expectations.


The authors argue that American schools are ________ as evidenced by their rigid curriculum, schedules, and philosophy.

social locations

People who have superior ________ compared to others in the society are more likely to support the status quo.

?? Reliable or dialect

The ________ character of society refers to the idea that society is both a product of social interaction and a force that continuously acts back on its producers.


The hard news of the media has a ________ bias which serves the interests of the ________.

increasing percentage of younger people in the population

All of the following are recent trends in American society, EXCEPT

of getting people to uncritically accept society

Conflict theorists see socialization as a process

communicative contact

According to Kingsley Davis, the core of socialization is

a product of how other people react to us

According to Cooley, our self concept is

deprives individuals of their humanness

Observers of Anna and other cases of isolated children discovered that being deprived of social interaction during one's formative years


________ is the vehicle through which socialization occurs.

are not parallel methods for expressing the same reality

The languages of different societies

interaction with other people

According to the authors, a person develops a sense of self through

by taking the role of the other

According to Mead, the child in the play stage learns who he is

significant others

In the play stage, children learn what is expected of them by

prepare children for the organization life of adults

The emphasis on order in the public school serves to

modal personality

The tendency for a society to produce a certain type of individual is referred to as

age cohort

A category of people of the same age is called

lack of consensus

There is a general____ in role expectations of adolescents and the elderly as well as the varying role expectations for gender appropriate behavior for men and women.

The formal curriculum of schools provides children with the education needed to take on adult roles. School also exposes children to the "hidden curriculum"- expectation about appropriate skills, character traits, and attitudes that pay off (competitiveness, ambition and conformity for example). Through a system of observation and constant feedback from peers, children learn ideas about in groups and out groups, cultural norms and gender appropriate behavior. Positive experiences with peers can boost a child's confidence and self esteem.

Compare and contrast the schools and peer groups as agents of socialization. What is the unique function of each, and what is an important point of difference.

reinforce American values

Little League programs for youngsters are designed to

Social control

________ is a central fact of social organization and essential for social order.

Ideological social control

________ is defined as the attempt to manipulate the consciousness of citizens so that they accept the dominant beliefs, comply willingly with laws, and don't question the existing distribution of societal power.

supportive of

Although the media does investigative reporting and occasionally questions the system, its overall impact is ________ the system.


________ social control refers to the attempts to punish or neutralize organizations or individuals who deviate from society's norms.

Sport is a valid means of upward mobility for people from the lower classes.

Which of the following statements is not identified by the authors as a reason why sport is an important mechanism of an ideological control?

ensure that existing power relationships are maintained over time

From the dominant view, for social order to prevail and anarchy to be avoided, society needs to ________.


The application of the medical model to individuals exhibiting certain behaviors personalizes the problem and deflects attention away from the ________ sources for the behavior.

Order theorists

________ believe that the political system is made up of a number of interest groups of more-or-less equal power.


________ refers to the improvement of the human race through control of hereditary factors.

liberal democratic / order

The dominant view in U.S. society is based on ________ theory and is congruent with the ________ model.


________ social control is more effective than overt social control measures because individuals impose control on themselves.

use of guidelines for behavior and punishments for disobedience

Religious groups are noticeably involved with social control in their

composed of different groups with competing values

Social control is more difficult in the United States because the society is

reinforce the status quo

Established religion in the United States tends to

on political and ideological issues

One-third of all corporate advertising is directed at influencing the public

society's ills are caused by individuals

According to Parenti in Make-Believe Media: The Politics of Entertainment, media dramas teach us

defuse social unrest in times of mass unemployment

According to Piven and Cloward, the social control function of public assistance programs is to

shrinking, increasing

Current trends indicate that the middle class is ________ and the gap between the haves and have-nots is ________ .

the outgroups of society

According to Scarpitti and Anderson, the people labelled mentally ill are frequently

the identification of the chronic offender

A 1983 Justice Department proposal had as its goal

supports some interests at the expense of others

According to Quinney's interest-group theory, law

the Civil Rights protests of the 1960s

Surveillance of Americans by the government reached its peak during

incarcerated without a hearing

In direct violation of the right of habeas corpus, until 2008, under the Patriot Act, aliens were

seeks a balance between liberty and the common good

Amitai Etzioni's communitarian philosophy holds that a good society

At its roots, ideological social control is attempting to change the way citizens think so that they accept the ruling ideology and reject competing ideologies. An example of ideological social control in education is how schools expect students to conform to the ideologies of the community (speech, dress and demeanor) while at school. Schools help students prepare for the future by showing them the right work ethic and teaching them the cultural norms. The media greatly influences how we perceive and interpret events and shapes how we evaluate ourselves and other people. As a citizen in such a busy country, it can be hard to stay up to date with local, national or world events, so we rely on the media to inform us and keep us up to date. The media can use our dependence to influence the way we think and see our society.

Explain what is meant by 'ideological social control' using an example from 'education' and one from 'media' to illustrate your answer. Be specific and explain what you mean in your own words.


All of the following are problems with the system-blame orientation EXCEPT


Treating the ________ as the source of deviance is the central thesis of biological, psychological, and some sociological theories.


________ explanations for deviance focus on physical features, genetic anomalies, and brain malfunctions.

Cultural transmission

________ theory asserts that through interaction and close association with deviants, one learns to be a criminal.

differential association

Edwin Sutherland's theory of ________ proposes that pro-criminal sentiments are acquired by association with other individuals in a process of social interaction.

Robert Merton

________ proposed that people turn to deviance because they are denied access to the approved means of achieving the goals of society.

cultural deprivation

In explaining deviance, victim blamers point to children's ________, which implies that the culture of the group is not only deficient but also inferior.

social Darwinism

Person-blame interpretations provide justification for a form of ________, that is, a person's placement in the stratification system is a function of ability and effort.

Conflict/order and labeling

________ theorists are critical of ________ and ________ approaches for their tendency to emphasize street crimes and to ignore the crimes of the elites, such as corporate crimes and crimes by governments.

Conflict theorists

________ assume that the law and the state are often tools of the powerful used to keep them in power; the political order itself may be criminal because it can be unjust.

order perspective

The ________ focuses on deviants themselves and believes that deviants have had inadequate socialization and should be rehabilitated so they will conform to society's norms and standards.

Culture of poverty

________ is the view that the poor are qualitatively different in values and lifestyles from the rest of society and that these cultural differences explain continued poverty and deviance.


System blamers cite failures of schools and the penal system as causes of ________.

Labeling theorists

________ say society assigns a deviant status to particular individuals, which in turn dominates their identities and behaviors.


Radical nonintervention is a strategy of leaving juvenile delinquents alone as much as possible rather than ________ them through the criminal justice system.

political crime

From the conflict perspective, such acts as CIA intervention in the domestic affairs of other nations or imperialism are examples of ________.

blaming the victim

The practice of ________ frees the government, the economy, and the systems of stratification, justice and education from blame or the need to change.

behavior that does not conform to social expectations

Deviance refers to

who receives the death penalty

The most blatant example of bias due to labeling is

it concentrates on the role of societal reaction in the creation of deviance

A strength of the labeling theory is

it focuses on some types of deviance but ignores others

The most serious deficiency of labeling theory is that

is further proof that deviance depends on the reaction of the audience

Differential treatment for similar behavior by different categories of people within a single society

to reassert the importance of the rule being violated

According to Durkheim, the true function of punishment is

ego, id

In Freudian theory, the deviant is a person who has not developed an adequate ________ to control the ________ .

a sense of injustice

The tendency for secondary deviance is especially strong when the imposition of the label is accompanied by

The first factor is that ex cons face problems of finding jobs and being accepted again in society. People stereotype ex cons and are mostly unwilling to hire them when they can hire other people with a clean record. Excons are assumed as untrustworthy and are sometimes forced into taking those jobs that nobody else wants. The second factor is that prison is seen as a brutal, degrading, and altogether dehumanizing experience. Prisoners are not treated with dignity and respect in our prison system. They are mistreated by guards, overcrowded and faced with unsanitary conditions.

According to labeling theory, there are factors in the prison experience lead the poor to behave criminally. Describe two of those factors in your own words. Be specific.

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