PHIL-101, Ethics. HW 9 Study Guide
Terms in this set (6)
Outline the various stages of fetal development.
A: Day 1: Fertilization with 46 chromosomes
Days 2-3: Fertilized ovum passes through the fallopian tubes
Days 7-10: Blastocyst reaches the uterus now a ball of cells
week 2: developing embryo becomes embedded in uterine wall
week 2-8: organs start to develop such as brain, heart and limbs
week 12-16: "Quickening" fetus starts to move
week 20-24: Brain waves start to be sensed
week 20-28: Fetus is starting to live without mothers support
week 40 Birth
Explain the conclusions of Roe v. Wade and Planned Parenthood v. Casey.
The basic conclusions of Roe v. Wade revolved around the (three)-trimester division of pregnancy. No legal intervention in the first trimester. From the end of this stage on states may make medical regulations, and from the time of viability around the end of the second trimester states may prohibit abortion except when the continued pregnancy endangers the mother's life or health. The basic conclusions of Planned Parenthood v. Casey were that the conclusions of Roe v. Wade remained and that states may make regulations including such things as waiting periods if these do not impose an undue burden on the pregnant woman seeking an abortion.
Give a utilitarian argument for abortion. Give one against abortion. Are these act or rule utilitarian arguments? Explain.
A utilitarian argument for abortion in an individual case will try to show that the benefits outweigh any costs or negative effects while a utilitarian argument against it will try to show that the negative effects will outweigh any positive effects. These are equivalent to act utilitarian arguments. A utilitarian argument for or against a certain set of laws regarding abortion should do the same thing. These are similar to rule utilitarian arguments.
Describe how Thomson uses the violinist analogy to make an argument about the moral permissibility of abortion.
Thomson uses the violinist analogy to make an argument regarding the moral permissibility of abortion by describing the case of being hooked up to the violinist and then asserting that if it is morally permissible to unhook the violinist (for the reasons given) then it is morally permissible to unhook the fetus. Key to her argument is the principle that being a person with a right to life does not automatically give one a right to whatever is necessary to sustain that life, including the right to use another's body.
Use Method I to make one argument for and one against abortion.
In using Method I to make an argument for abortion one must point to some point in fetal development, tell what is present then, and why this is significant for holding that a fetus has special moral status because of this. One against abortion also selects some point, probably early on, in fetal development and gives reasons why that point and no others are good ones to take, chiefly by giving reasons for the importance of what is there at that point in fetal development.
Which of the positions under Method II does each of the following statement exemplify?
a. Because this fetus has all the potential to develop the abilities of a person, it has all the rights of a person.
b. Only when a being can think and communicate does it have full moral status. Because a fetus does not have these abilities, it has neither moral rights nor claims.
c. If it is a human being, then it has full moral status and rights.
d. Its capacity to feel pain gives a being full moral status. The fetus has this capacity beginning in the fifth or sixth month, and so abortion is not morally justifiable beyond the stage.
e. Early-term fetuses do not have much moral significance as late-term fetuses because their potential is not as well developed as later.
Which of the following positions under Method II do each of the following statements exemplify: a. Strict Potentiality Criterion. b. Actual Possession Criterion. c. Species Criterion. d. Actual Possession Criterion. e. Modified or Gradualist Potentiality Criterion.
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