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PEARSON CHAPTER 3 HW
Terms in this set (40)
What are the different types of flagella arrangements?
True or False:
Peroxisomes contain enzymes used to digest nutrients that have been brought into the cell through phagocytosis.
Peptidoglycans are composed of sugars and _____
Amino acids; (Amino acids combine to form the peptide portion of the peptidoglycan)
One chain of alternating NAGs and NAMs is connected to another chain via _____.
Tetrapeptides; (Tetrapeptides are composed of four amino acids and make up the "peptido" portion of peptidoglycan)
One of the main differences between a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative bacterial cell wall is that the peptidoglycan portion of a Gram-positive cell wall is _____ as compared to a Gram-negative cell wall.
Thicker; (The peptidoglycan layer of Gram-positive bacteria is much thicker than that of Gram-negative bacteria.)
Within the peptidoglycan layer, the crossbridges that connect the chains of alternating sugar molecules extend between _____.
Two N-acetylmuramic acid molecules; (The crossbridges link NAM molecules to one another and provide the structural integrity of the peptidoglycan layer.)
The peptidoglycan cell wall of bacteria is most analogous to _____.
A chain link fence; (The peptidoglycan cell wall is meshlike, allowing for easy passage of ions, amino acids, and nutrients and maintaining structural integrity.)
What role do the teichoic acids play within the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria?
They serve to stabilize the cell wall and hold it in place; (Some of the teichoic acids are anchored to lipids within the cytoplasmic membrane and are thus called lipoteichoic acids.)
The region between the outer and inner membranes of a Gram-negative bacterial cell is known as the __________, and it is the location of enzymes that assemble peptidoglycan.
Periplasmic space; (The periplasmic space is an area surrounding the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane.)
A patient is infected with Gram-negative bacteria and is experiencing only mild symptoms. When the patient is given an antibiotic causing lysis of the bacterial cells, he suddenly experiences an increase in inflammation and fever, as well as the formation of blood clots. What explanation best describes what happened?
The lysis of the cells releases lipid A from the lipopolysaccharide layer; (Lipid A is known to cause inflammation, fever, and blood clots)
If a eukaryotic cell suffers damage to its mitochondria, which of the following processes of life would be most immediately affected?
Where is the genetic information of the cell stored?
Nucleus; (DNA is the genetic information of the cell, and it is stored in the nucleus)
The structural framework in a cell is the
Cytoskeleton; (The cytoskeleton is the structural framework in a cell ("cyto" refers to cell and "skeleton" refers to a structural framework))
Where in a cell is ATP made?
What carries instructions for making proteins from the nucleus into the cytoplasm?
mRNA; (The "m" in mRNA stands for "messenger"; mRNA is the messenger that carries genetic instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm)
One of the ways smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) differs from rough endoplasmic reticulum is that rough ER is covered by
Ribosomes; (Ribosomes dock on the rough ER, and proteins are completed inside the rough ER)
Which of the following is part of the Endomembrane system?
(The endomembrane system includes the ER, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vesicles. It manufactures, processes, and transports lipids and proteins. The Golgi apparatus processes and packages proteins.)
Which organelles breaks down worn-out organelles?
Lysosomes; (Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes and break down worn-out organelles.)
Where are lipids made in the cell?
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
What structure acts as a selective barrier, regulating the traffic of materials into and out of the cell?
Plasma membrane; (The plasma membrane surrounds the cell and regulates the movement of materials into and out of the cell.)
Which of the following organisms is a prokaryote?
Both Archaea and Protozoa
Structures of Prokaryotic cell (KNOW LOCATION)
The filament and basal body are associated with which of the following external structures found in some bacterial cells?
Why is ATP necessary for active transport?
ATP provides energy to transfer material against its concentration gradient
Which type of active transport protein moves two molecules into the cell at the same time?
Which transport protein employs transporters that move molecules only in one direction?
Uniport and Symport
Which molecule shown in the animation, the square or the circle, is moving against its concentration gradient?
Both the circle and the square
Which type of active transport protein uses one protein to pump two different molecules?
Antiport and Symport
How is osmosis different from simple diffusion?
Water movement is driven by the concentration of solutes rather than its own concentration
allow a variety of molecules to cross the cytoplasmic membrane
What will happen to a cell that is placed in a solution containing a high concentration of sugar, a molecule that cannot pass across the cell membrane?
The cell will lose its interior water, causing it to shrivel up and possibly die.
How is simple diffusion different from other types of passive transport?
Simple diffusion does not require a permease
The reserve deposits of starch or other compounds found in many prokaryotic cells are called (vacuoles/inclusions/nucleoid).
The hami of some archaea are used for which of the following processes?
The archaea are similar to bacteria in all of the following aspects EXCEPT--
their ribosomal proteins
their mechanism of cell division
their lack of membranous organelles
Their ribosomal proteins;
The proteins in archaeal ribosomes are more similar to those of eukaryotes than prokaryotes
The process of bringing a solid substance into the cell is known as
Which of the following is NOT a membranous organelle within a eukaryotic cell?
A bacterial cell possesses a glycocalyx. Which of the following is FALSE?
It will be able to attach to surfaces.
It will be less likely to dry out.
It will be more pathogenic.
It will be engulfed more quickly by defensive cells of the host.
It will be engulfed more quickly by defensive cells of the host
Endospores survive a variety of harsh conditions in part because of the presence of
Which of the following chemical substances contributes to the unique characteristics of acid-fast bacteria?
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Microbiology Chapter 3
Chapter 5: Lipids