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37 terms

Anatomy of the Heart

Lab session 3
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apex
the inferior tip of the heart that is more on the left side of the thoracic cavity
base
blood vessels join the heart here, which is positioned medially in the mediastinum
pericardium
made up of visceral pericardium and parietal pericardium, a serous membrane
visceral pericardium
epicardium; lines the surface of the heart
parietal pericardium
outer layer that attaches the heart in the mediastinum
mesothelium
contained in the pericardium; a simple epithelium that lines the pericardial cavity and secretes serous fluid
fibrous layer
found in the pareital pericardium; supports the heart and vessels in the mediastinum
three layers of heart wall
epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
epicardium
the same structure as visceral pericardium
myocardium
composed of cardiac muscle tissue and constitutes most of the heart wall. Composed of cardiocytes.
endocardium
a thin layer of endothelial tissue lining the chambers of the heart.
four chambers of heart
right atrium, left atrium (both are upper chambers), right ventricle, left ventricle (both are lower chambers)
atria
receiving chambers; fill with blood returning to the heart via the veins.
ventricles
blood flows here from atria; these are pumping chambers; squeeze walls together to pressurize blood to send out to circuits.
four vessels of heart
vena cava (superior/inferior), pulmonary trunk, pulmonary veins, aorta
vena cava
brings deoxygenated blood to the heart into the right atrium.
pulmonary trunk
sends deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
pulmonary veins
drain the lungs and return oxygenated blood to the left atrium.
aorta
branches into the major systemic arteries, which transport oxygenated blood to all body tissues.
four valves of heart
tricuspid valve, pulmonary semilunar valve, biscupid valve, aortic semilunar valve.
tricuspid valve
right atrioventricular valve; joins the right atrium and right ventricle; has three flaps.
atrioventricular valves
prevent blood from reentering the atria when the ventricles contract.
bicuspid valve
left atrioventricular valve; mitral valve; joins the left atrium and left ventricle; has two flaps.
pulmonary semilunar valve
located at the base of the pulmonary trunk; prevents the backflow of blood into the right ventricle.
aortic semilunar valve
located at the base of the aorta; prevents the backflow of blood into the left ventricle.
deoxygenated path of blood in heart
superior/inferior vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary semilunar valve, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteries, lungs.
oxygenated path of blood in heart
pulmonary veins, left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, aortic semilunar valve, aorta, body.
coronary circulation path
coronary arteries, marginal artery/posterior interventricular artery (from right coronary artery), circumflex branch/anterior interventricular branch (from left coronary artery).
cardiac veins
collect deoxygenated blood from the myocardium; consists of great cardiac vein, middle cardiac vein, small cardiac vein, posterior cardiac vein.
great cardiac vein
drains the myocardium supplied by the anterior interventricular artery.
small cardiac vein
drains the upper right area of the heart.
middle cardiac vein
drains the myocardium supplied by the posterior interventricular artery.
posterior cardiac vein
drains the myocardium supplied by the circumflex artery.
coronary sinus
empties deoxygenated blood from the myocardium into the right atrium.
cardiac muscle tissue
terms to know: intercalated disks, striations, branching; centrally located nucleus
path of blood in heart
histological function of cardiocyte
a striated muscle cell; is uninucleated and branched. Connects at the branches with intercalated discs.