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Lab session 3


the inferior tip of the heart that is more on the left side of the thoracic cavity


blood vessels join the heart here, which is positioned medially in the mediastinum


made up of visceral pericardium and parietal pericardium, a serous membrane

visceral pericardium

epicardium; lines the surface of the heart

parietal pericardium

outer layer that attaches the heart in the mediastinum


contained in the pericardium; a simple epithelium that lines the pericardial cavity and secretes serous fluid

fibrous layer

found in the pareital pericardium; supports the heart and vessels in the mediastinum

three layers of heart wall

epicardium, myocardium, endocardium


the same structure as visceral pericardium


composed of cardiac muscle tissue and constitutes most of the heart wall. Composed of cardiocytes.


a thin layer of endothelial tissue lining the chambers of the heart.

four chambers of heart

right atrium, left atrium (both are upper chambers), right ventricle, left ventricle (both are lower chambers)


receiving chambers; fill with blood returning to the heart via the veins.


blood flows here from atria; these are pumping chambers; squeeze walls together to pressurize blood to send out to circuits.

four vessels of heart

vena cava (superior/inferior), pulmonary trunk, pulmonary veins, aorta

vena cava

brings deoxygenated blood to the heart into the right atrium.

pulmonary trunk

sends deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

pulmonary veins

drain the lungs and return oxygenated blood to the left atrium.


branches into the major systemic arteries, which transport oxygenated blood to all body tissues.

four valves of heart

tricuspid valve, pulmonary semilunar valve, biscupid valve, aortic semilunar valve.

tricuspid valve

right atrioventricular valve; joins the right atrium and right ventricle; has three flaps.

atrioventricular valves

prevent blood from reentering the atria when the ventricles contract.

bicuspid valve

left atrioventricular valve; mitral valve; joins the left atrium and left ventricle; has two flaps.

pulmonary semilunar valve

located at the base of the pulmonary trunk; prevents the backflow of blood into the right ventricle.

aortic semilunar valve

located at the base of the aorta; prevents the backflow of blood into the left ventricle.

deoxygenated path of blood in heart

superior/inferior vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary semilunar valve, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteries, lungs.

oxygenated path of blood in heart

pulmonary veins, left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, aortic semilunar valve, aorta, body.

coronary circulation path

coronary arteries, marginal artery/posterior interventricular artery (from right coronary artery), circumflex branch/anterior interventricular branch (from left coronary artery).

cardiac veins

collect deoxygenated blood from the myocardium; consists of great cardiac vein, middle cardiac vein, small cardiac vein, posterior cardiac vein.

great cardiac vein

drains the myocardium supplied by the anterior interventricular artery.

small cardiac vein

drains the upper right area of the heart.

middle cardiac vein

drains the myocardium supplied by the posterior interventricular artery.

posterior cardiac vein

drains the myocardium supplied by the circumflex artery.

coronary sinus

empties deoxygenated blood from the myocardium into the right atrium.

cardiac muscle tissue

terms to know: intercalated disks, striations, branching; centrally located nucleus

path of blood in heart

histological function of cardiocyte

a striated muscle cell; is uninucleated and branched. Connects at the branches with intercalated discs.

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