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Ottoman Empire

Islamic state founded by Osman in northwest Anatolia ca. 1300. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, was based in Istanbul; encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe


founder of the Ottoman Empire

Suleiman the Magnificent

begins the "Golden Age" and greatest assault on Europe by conquering places such as Rhodes and Belgrade; he also develops the first Ottoman legal system


Ottoman sultan known for massive military expansion especially the conquering of Constantinople

Tulip Period

from 1718-1730, a period of time in the Ottoman Empire where there was in increasing interest in luxury goods especially tulip buds and turtle shells


kidnapped Christian boys from the Balkans who were educated in warfare and administration; Muslim boys weren't kidnapped because the Muslims held grudges against the Ottomans


the social system in which Janisarries are kidnapped in the Ottoman Empire and trained to become the empire's military officials and government leaders

Battle of Lepanto

Naval battle where the Ottoman navy was finally taken down by the Europeans, resulting in Europe regaining control of the Mediterranean

Safavid Empire

from 1502-1722, Muslim empire located in present day Iran where Islam serves as the main running system of government; rulers include Ismail and Shah Abbas I, who are in truth replacement rulers until the Hidden Imam returns


term for the ruler that serves as a stand-in for the Hidden Imam, often times called ayatollah


leader of the Sufi order (brotherhoods who got closer to Allah by chanting and spinning), in the Safavid Empire

Hidden Imam

the 12th descendant of Ali, who disappeared as a child; when he returns, he will be the destined ruler for Shi'ite Islam; involves an outpouring of emotion and also the commemoration of Imam Husayn


Red turbaned military officers from the Safavid Empire

Mughal Empire

from 1526-1761, this empire in India succeeded in military conquest but more importantly religious and cultural tolerance through kings such as Akbar; preceded by the Delhi Sultanate


ruler from the Mughal Empire, practiced religious accommodation by marrying a Rajput princess and also creating the Divine Faith, abolishing of Hindu taxes, forced prisoner of war conversions,and non-Muslim poll taxes


"army of the pure", syncretic religion consisting elements of Islam and Hinduism; led by Gurus, in which the 9th guru was murdered by Aurangzeb

Divine Faith

a syncretic religion combining elements of Hindu, Jainism, Christianity, and Zoroastrianism; their god is their founder


military and government officials in the Mughal Empire who were given land grants


major port city in the island of Java that was controlled by the Dutch

Acheh Sultanate

Muslim kingdom in northern Sumatra. Main center of Islamic expansion in Southeast Asia in the early seventeenth century, it declined after the Dutch seized Malacca from Portugal in 1641.


warlords who control Japan during political disintegration


Japanese daimyo known for his invasion of Korea and China in 1592 with 160,000 troops; captures Korea but is only able to destabilize China's army

Tokugawa Shogunate

shogunate that begins in 1603, militaristic, decentralized government; stimulates economic growth ending civil wars, but closes borders to European trade and Christian influence, capital moved to Edo (present day Tokyo)

Mitsui companies

businesses in Feudal Japan who specialized in accounting and manufacturing; their finances were supported by a symbiotic relationship with the government; also did their trade through sake (rice wine)


warriors of Feudal Japan and the Tokugawa Shogunate who had an interest in luxury goods; they break apart due to identity crisis as they become in debt and their tradition is lost as a result of upholding new civil laws

47 Ronin

"Masterless Warriors" they came to being after the disbanding of the samurai, but they still come under ideological and social crises because of the Tokugawa Shogunate; forced to commit ritual suicide


the term for ritual suicide committed by the 47 Ronin and other samurai

Dutch Studies

during the Tokugawa Shogunate, the annual event in which Dutch ships arrived to update the Japanese on science, technology, and also trading connections with the West


Qing emperor who incorporated ideas and technologies from different regions of Asia; stability and expansion of empire; friend of the Jesuits, praised by philosophers such as Voltaire; because he was interested in the West

Treaty of Nerchinsk

treaty between China and Russia in which the Amur River becomes the border between the two countries


Qing emperor who was a important part of the Macartney Mission, introduced the Canton System

Macartney Mission

an attempt by Britain to persuade the Qing Empire to reponen trade connections with Europe and end the English trade deficit; however this failed because Macartney had failed to kowtow to Qianglong


the term for a "Post-Mongol" Russia

Peter the Great

the greatest Romanov tsar who tried to westernize Russia after making a secret trip to the Netherlands posing as a carpenter; he establishes the capital city of St. Petersburg, reduces the power of the Church and boyars, and conquers land captured from Sweden


responsible for the expansion of Russia into Siberia with the help of hired mercenaries named Cossacks, hunting for fur pelts

Matteo Ricci

Jesuit missionary who introduced European technology to China

Francis Xavier

missionary who introduced Christianity and European philosophies into Japan, resulted in mass conversions


hired mercenaries from Muscovite Russia found all throughout the cities in Siberia, aided the Strogonovs in Russian expansion


men of women who were the poorest members of society, peasants who worked the lord's land in exchange for protection, hereditary in Russia

Gunpowder Empires

The Ottoman Empire, Safavid Empire, and Mughal Empire are all examples of......

7 Years War

from 1756-1763, war between Britain and France, with Britain as the victor

Enlightened Despots

Joseph II, Frederick the Great, and Catherine the Great, are all examples of this- supporting Enlightenment thinkers all for their own gain

Battle of Saratoga

pinnacle battle in the American Revolution that ended in an American victory, supported financially by France, which led to French debt and ultimately the revolution; utilized guerrilla warfare

Articles of Confederation

the nation's first constitution, adopted by the second continental congress in 1781 during the American Revolution

Constitutional Convention

meeting of delegates in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation, which produced the new U.S. Constitution

French Revolution

from 1789-1815, it was a radical period in France which involved the calling of the Estates General, the formation of the National Assembly, the execution of Louis XVI, and the Committee of Public Safety

Estates General

the branches of government in France, that were called into place again by Louis XVI; they consist of the clergy, nobles, and the peasantry (bourgeois)

Tennis Court Oath

the agreement that the Third Estate had made that resulted in a quasi-Roman salute and also the formation of the new National Assembly who were furious with the current French government

Declaration of the Rights of Man

Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution

Committee of Public Safety

initiated by master orator Maxmilien Robespierre and formed by radical jacobins who were executing traitors and treasonous people on a wanted list


the device used to execute Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette; it symbolized an equal and painless death for all people of all social classes

Napoleon Bonaparte

a military general of France, he brought order to an exhausted society through economic and educational reforms; he tries to bring back France to its old, monarchy roots through reviving the church and also through massive military conquests throughout Western Europe

Thermidorian Reaction

the term for when Robespierre begins to go beyond the list of treasonous people wanted in France and takes it too far, and tries to kill himself but ironically leaves him speechless and is then executed

gens de couleur

Free men and women of color in Haiti. They sought greater political rights and later supported the Haitian Revolution.

Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture

a major benefactor of the Haitian Revolution in Saint Domingue, he leads the most successful slave rebellion in Haiti, causing Napoleon to lose interest in the Western Hemisphere, and thus do the Louisiana Purchase with the US

Congress of Vienna

consisting of Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria, they sought to restore France back to its former glory by bringing back power to the nobles and absolute monarchy


place where Napoleon's massive conquest is finally put down by the Russians after his first escape from the island of St. Elba

Constitution of 1791

document in which monarchical power in France is abolished as well as nobility being a hereditary class


radical orator speakers during the French Revolution

Storming the Bastille

the event in which civilians and the National Assembly ransacked a French prison in the middle of the town to gain gunpowder but also as a symbol of tearing down French monarchy

Reign of Terror

from 1793-1794, was the most chaotic time period of the French Revolution as it was the peak of power for Robespierre and other radical thinkers, as well as a large portion of France's population killed

Industrial Revolution

originating in Britain, this revolution came with new technological innovations along with new philosophies and ways of thinking, mechanization, urbanization movements, and new commercial productivity

Agricultural Revolution

one of the factors that influenced the Industrial Revolution, came with new crops from the Americas leading to higher mortality rates and population growth with improved soil and livestock breeding


the most important crop as a result of the Agricultural Revolution


a revolution that involved factory based products that ran on machinery that allowed for lower prices and increased productivity

division of labor

dividing work into specialized and repetitive tasks

business cycles

the fluctuating of profit from a business that highlights income being influenced by outside factors, going from employment to unemployment, causing a choice to raise prices or lay off workers, money goes down as well as spending, and banks loan too much money leading to debt

Laissez Faire

the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs, supply and demand theory along with free market ideals reinstated by Adam Smith

India and Egypt

two civilizations other than Britain that were highly involved in the distribution of cotton and cheap textiles into Europe; one is negatively affected while another will be utilized by France for resources


list the FOUR most important centers of urbanization in England (separate with a /)

James Watt

inventor of arguably the most important invention of the Industrial Revolution- leading to bigger sources of power as well as new forms of transportation

steam engine

the most important invention of the Industrial Revolution because it led to urbanization and mechanization in Europe through new modes of transportation such as the steamboat and railroad

spinning jenny and water frame

the two most important inventions in the Industrial Revolution that contributed to the mass production of textiles

Adam Smith

author of "Wealth of Nations", he believed that government should not interfere in business, and that the economy should have a free market with a supply and demand structure (capitalism)


founded by August Comte, it is the philosophy of using the Scientific Method to solve problems

Utopian Socialism

founded by Charles Fourier, philosophy that stressed perfect unity through optimal housing and schools along with social uniformity; later challenged by Karl Marx, founder of communism


the "result" of technological inventions and new advanced weaponry coming together; allowed for much more conquests and faster colonization of the world


landless farmers who became indebted to their hirer and must work under their farms to gain and income, contributed to the Agricultural Revolution- the decrease of communal land and labor

Enclosure Movement

the movement in which there was a dominance of wealthy landowners and poor living conditions caused farmers to move into the city to find new job opportunities

Holy Alliance

consisting of Austria, Prussia, and France, they were similar to how Europe functioned after the War of Spanish Succession; focused on keeping a balance of power between each empire


loyal guerrilla soldiers in Spain and Portugal who fought back against Napoleon


the term for schools that taught one how to become a government official; prominent during Napoleon's era, it established a type of meritocracy and part of the Napoleonic code

Simon Bolivar

The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.

Miguel Hidalgo

Mexican priest who led peasants in call for independence and improved conditions

Jose Morelos

Mexican priest and former student of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, he led the forces fighting for Mexican independence until he was captured and executed in 1814.

Pedro I

son and successor of Joao VI in Brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence in 1822 and became constitutional emperor

Confederation of 1867

Negotiated union of the formerly separate colonial governments of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. This new Dominion of Canada with a central government in Ottawa is seen as the beginning of the Canadian nation.

personalist leaders

Political leaders who rely on charisma and their ability to mobilize and direct the masses of citizens outside the authority of constitutions and laws.

Andrew Jackson

The seventh President of the United States, who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans. As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.

Jose Paez

Venezuelan soldier who led Simon Bolivar's cavalry force. He became a successful general in the war and built a powerful political base. He was unwilling to accept the constitutional authority of Bolivar's government in distant Bogotá and declared Venezuela's independence from Gran Colombia in 1829.

Benito Juarez

Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico


a famous chief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement (1768-1813)

Caste War

A rebellion of the Maya people against the government of Mexico in 1847.


people who believed that slavery should be against the law, such as Frederic Douglas

Women's Rights Convention

An 1848 gathering of women angered by their exclusion from an international antislavery meeting, they met in Seneca Falls

Gran Colombia

the confederation began by Simon Bolivar consisting of countries such as Colombia and Bolivia; aimed for independence in South America


the mixed race of Spanish and Amerindian descent; they are the main rebels against the wealthy, peninsulare elite, includes Simon Bolivar and the Junta

Ferdinand VII

conservative leader, he declared Mexico independent of Spain, became its emperor in response to the liberal reforms, rose to power in 1814

Augustin de Iterbide

the official person to finally declare independence of Mexico


the term for society that contains industrialized sectors and manufacturing


the term for society that depends on cash crops, which are subjective to the environment along with a specialized Latin American economy


the term for the mandatory conforming to new cultures, beliefs, and social policies, acclimation to new surroundings (esp. immigrants)

Indian Removal Act

in 1830, the decision taken by the American government to expel the Indians from native lands to reservations due to overpopulation of European migrations


the term for a racist movement against foreigners, stems from the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882


another term for the peninsulares, who were the elite and naturally European-Spanish born, the top of the social class


Wrote The Social Contract. Said the government must rule at the general will of the people so that the most people are benefited. Hated Parliament because the delegates made laws not the people.


the type of economy that the South American colonies utilized during the advent of revolution


the Ottoman government officials


the Ottomans who provided the taxes

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