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Clin Med Block 1: Infectious Diseases

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nematode
An intestinal parasite, also known as roundworms, found in impoverished areas with poor sanitation. Includes pinworms, hookworms, and filariasis. Infection may result from ingestion of eggs or penetration of skin by larvae.
Intestinal nematodes
adults live in GI tract, mature in small intestine or colon. Some species get to the intestines after larval migration via internal organs (hookworms)
Tissue nematodes
adults live in lymphatics or in subcutaneous tissues and release larvae (filariasis)
Filariasis
A tissue nematode that lives in the lymphatics or subcutaneous tissues. Larvae are spread via insects (fly) and may cause lymphostasis (obstruction of the normal flow of lymph), elephantiasis (Hypertrophy, edema, and fibrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissue), and subcutaneous nodules.
Cryptosporidium: clinical course & S/Sx
MC cause of waterborne dz in US; ingested oocysts from cattle feces grow on intestinal epith; incub. 2-14d; S/Sx: watery diarrhea, cramping, N/V, flatulence; +/-fever & wt loss
Cryptosporidium Dx
stool exam crypto-specific testing; acid fast (bright pink cysts); immunofluorescence stains (more sensitive); ELISA; PCR
Cryptosporidium - geographic distribution
worldwide in temperate/tropical; MC in less developed countries;