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Functions of Protein

Structual support, communication, membrane transport, catalysis, protection and recognition, movement, cellular adhesion


Cholesterol is the major steroid - makes tesosterone, bile acids, progesterone, estrogens, cortisol

Types of Lipids

Fatty acid, triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, eicosanoids


you have phosphorus and nitrogen attached throughout the structure - 2 regions hydrophilic and hydrophobic

Another word for Phospholipids

Amphiphilic - the head and two tails give the shape of a clothespin

Phospholipids function

Main function to serve as the structural foundation of cell membranes

Primary structure of Protein

protein is a chain of substance that make protein amino acids - are the building block

Secondary structure of Protein

when you start putting chains of protein together and you combine the chains using hydrogen bonds

Teritiary Structure of Protein

folding and bending of secondary structure

Quaternary Structure of Protein

2 or more of the proteins chains stuck together


consist of carbon


water and carbon dioxide, bicarbonate ions, carbon monoxide


your energy - used very quickly - anaerobic 2 and aerobic respiration 36 to 38


molecule consisting of 3 fatty acids tails combine to a glycerol backbone - primary function is energy although provides thermal insulation from cold, shock absorber for organs


prostaglandins are hormone messangers - play role in inflammation, blood clotting, hormone action, labor, and contractions


when you go from a highly folded protein and you add heat to it - ex. when you cook an egg


they break down and are a type of protein

Hemoglobin molecule

consist of 4 polypeptides chains - 2 identical alpha chains and 2 identical longer beta chains

Structure of ATP

Adenine - Ribose - 3 phosphate groups


are sugars composed of 2 monosaccharides sucrose, lactose and maltose


Table sugar

Lactose contains

glucose and galactose

Maltose contains

glucose and glucose

Sucrose contains

glucose and fructose


are hydrophilic - monosaccharides - glucose, fructose, galactose

Carbohydrates are stored

in liver and skeletal muscles


glucose molecules stuck together to form long chains of glucose

Polysaccharides contains

glycogen, starch and cellulose

Starch and Cellulose

Plant products

Glucose importance

to make energy and ATP

Fatty Acid

chain of usually 4 to 24 carbon atoms

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