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Quantum Mechanics Terminology
Useful terminology on Quantum Mechanics and the Big Bang.
Terms in this set (90)
The taking in of electromagnetic radiation in atoms that elevates their electrons to higher states of energy
a positively charged atom that is released in the disintegration of radioactive elements and that consists of two protons and two neutrons
the new scientific hypothesis that the structure of the universe is so precise that its origin could not have been random (on par with intelligent design)
a unit of angular distance equal to a 60th of a degree
a 60th part of a minute of arc
basic unit of matter
Big Bang Model
Theory according to which space, time, matter and energy were all created at a singular point some 13 to 14 billion years ago.
Cephied Variable Star
A type of star whose brightness varies over a precise regular period,usually between 1 and 100 days.
A pervasive 'sea' of microwave radiation emanating almost uniformly from every direction of the universe
an arbitrary constant in the equations of general relativity theory, A constant introduced into the equations of general relativity by Albert Einstein in an attempt to cancel the predictions of the expanding nature of our Universe.
on a large scale the universe is uniform. The universe is isotropic (the same in all directions) and homogeneous (of uniform density) as long as a large enough volume is used.
the branch of astrophysics that studies the origin and evolution and structure of the universe
A theoretical concept introduced as part of the Steady State model.
A quantity used by paticle physicists to assess the likelyhood of two particles colliding.
A mysterious force that appears to be causing the expansion of the universe to accelerate
matter that does not give off electromagnetic radiation but is quite abundant in the universe
In the Ptolemaic system of the universe, the larger circle, centered at the Earth, on which the centers of the epicycles revolve.
an isotope of hydrogen which has one neutron (as opposed to zero neutrons in hydrogen)
change in the apparent frequency of a wave as observer and source move toward or away from each other
radiation consisting of waves of energy associated with electric and magnetic fields resulting from the acceleration of an electric charge
the entire frequency range of electromagnetic waves
a form of energy that can move through the vacuum of space
A elementary particle with negative charge
Ay of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter
Te release of electrons from parent atoms
A circle that rolls upon the external or internal circumference of another circle.
Amedium that was once supposed to fill all space and to support the propagation of electromagnetic waves
Amethod of writing a number as a product of prime numbers with exponents
Anuclear reaction in which a massive nucleus splits into smaller nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy
Acollection of star systems
General Theory of Relativity
Albert Einstein's description of gravity that was published in 1915. This theory explains the relationship between the geometry of space and the flow of time in our Universe.
Te force of attraction between all masses in the universe
a very light colorless element that is one of the six inert gasses
all of the same or similar kind or nature
the ratio of the speed of recession of a galaxy (due to the expansion of the universe) to its distance from the observer
proves that the universe is expanding. The farther a galaxy is, the faster it moves away from us. V = H x d
a nonmetallic univalent element that is normally a colorless and odorless highly flammable diatomic gas
a brief exponential expansion of the universe (faster than the speed of light) postulated to have occurred shortly after the big bang
electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths longer than visible light but shorter than radio waves
one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons
2 transverse waves that run perpendicular to one another. electrical and magnetic
The distance that light travels in one year, about 9.5 million million kilometers.
Experiment that first suggested that the size of objects change when they are observed to be moving. Case, Cleve OH
A form of radiant energy in which heat is transferred by short, high-frequency waves.
the galaxy containing the solar system
The set of parallel universes that may exist, with our observable universe as only one part.
an immense cloud of gas (mainly hydrogen) and dust in interstellar space
an elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to a proton
a star that ejects some of its material in the form of a cloud and become more luminous in the process
the branch of physics that studies the internal structure of atomic nuclei
a constituent (proton or neutron) of an atomic nucleus
The building up of heavier elements from lighter ones by nuclear fusion.
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
a unit of astronomical length based on the distance from Earth at which stellar parallax is 1 second of arc
when objects apear to move because you veiw them from different locations
Principle for choosing the explanation that accounts for the most evidence while making the fewest unverified assumptions
Perfect Cosmological Principle
An extension of the cosmological principle which states that the universe is not only homogenous and isotopic but also unchanging wtih time.
a fourth state of matter distinct from solid or liquid or gas and present in stars and fusion reactors
Primeval Atom Theory
George Lemaitre's earlier version of the Big Bang Theory.
The portion of a star's motion that is perpendicular to an observer's line of sight. The star's apparent motion across the face of the heavens, not due to parallax
a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electron
the theory of the heavens devised by Claudius Ptolemy
a starlike object that may send out radio waves and other forms of energy
Quasi Steady-State Model
A modified version of the Steady State Model which attempts to make up for some it's inconsistencies in the previous model.
velocity along the line of sight toward or away from the observer
the spontaneous disintegration of a radioactive substance along with the emission of ionizing radiation
the spontaneous emission of a stream of particles or electromagnetic rays in nuclear decay
the branch of astronomy that detects and studies the radio waves emitted by celestial bodies
A galaxy that emits unusually large quantities of radio waves; thought to contain an active galactic nucleus powered by a supermassive black hole.
an instrument that collects and records radio waves traveling through space and can be used day or night under most weather conditions; provides information to map the universe and look for life on other planets
electromagnetic waves with the longest wavelengths and lowest frequencies
a combinng of charges or transfer of electrons in a gas that results in the neutralization of ions
shift of light to a longer wavelength as it moves away
by Albert Einstein the dependence of various physical situations on relative motion of the observer and the observed objects esp. regarding the nature and behavior of light, space, time and gravity
the apparent westward motion of the planets with respect to the stars
RR Lyrae Star
a type of pulsating star with a period less than 1 day
Similar triangles have the same shape: corresponding angles are equal and corresponding sides are proportional
A series of prestigous invitations-only conferences held every few years to discuss particular problems of the forefront of physics.
the concept from special relativity that space and time are both essential in describing the position, motion, and action of any object or event
Special Theory of Relativity
a physical theory of relativity based on the assumption that the speed of light in a vacuum is a constant and the assumption that the laws of physics are invariant in all inertial systems
an optical instrument for spectrographic analysis
the use of spectroscopes to analyze spectra
Speed of Light (c)
2.998 x 10^(8)ms^(-1)
any celestial body visible (as a point of light) from the Earth at night
Steady State Model
the idea that the universe appeared without a beginning
the apparent shift in a nearby star;s position on the celestial sphere resulting from the Earth's orbit around the Sun
a star that explodes and becomes extremely luminous in the process
having or employing wavelengths shorter than light but longer than X-rays
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum detected as various colors by the human eye, ranging in wavelength from about 380 nm to about 750 nm.
the distance (measured in the direction of propagation) between two points in the same phase in consecutive cycles of a wave
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