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direct democracy

major decisions of the states made by general assemblies in which all citizens could participate

Philip II of Macedon

ruled Macedon from from 359 to 336 B.C.E.; founder of centralized kingdom; later conquered rest of Greece


Conservative Roman senator; Stoic philosopher; killed in reaction to assassination of Julius Caesar

Roman Republic

balanced constitution of Rome; featured an aristocratic Senate; a panel of magistrates, and several popular assemblies

Iliad and Odyssey

Greek epic poem attributed to Homer; defined gods and human nature that shaped Greek myths


mathematician who produced the most widely used compendium of geometry

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