Terms in this set (17)
When did conservatism first appear?
-late 18th century, primarily as a reaction to the ideas and changed brought about by the French Revolution
-was about conserving the order dominated by the landed aristocracy, established church and the monarchy
What did Authoritarian or Reactionary conservatives believe?
1. Defended the traditional social order, autocratic rule of monarchs and a rigid set of hierarchical values
2. Social dominance of institutions should continue and resisted all attempts to introduce constitutional government and parliamentary reform
3. In Germany and Italy in the 20th century, Autho Con backed fascist leaders in the hope of restoring the old established order: Hindenburg
Why and what were conservatives forced to come to terms with?
The establishment of industrial capitalism and constitutional government by liberalism in the 19th Century. They were forced to come to terms with these developments and offer a more pragmatic conservatism
What were Edmund Burkes beliefs and how did they contribute to pragmatic conservatism?
-Burke insisted that Conservatives needed to allow a certain amount of change to maintain the wider features of traditional society
-any change should be pragmatic with the aim of preserving the conservative values of tradition and authority
-pragmatism was to be a guide for policy decisions
How did One nation conservatism emerge?
-been seen as being adopted by the Conservative Party through Disraeli in the 19th Century and Baldwin in the 1920's
What do these one nation conservatives under the influence of Disraeli believed?
-widespread social inequality brought about by industrial capitalism brought with it a social disorder, socialism and revolution
-for those in positions of power, wealth and privilege brought with them social obligations: a Paternalistic conservatism in which the poor should be helped in times of difficulty
-this was an adaptation of the old concept of 'noblesse oblige' the rich helping the poor in times of need
How did Christian democracy emerge?
-in countries where Auth Con had been prevalent, but became discredited through its association with fascism
-following WW2 many European Conservatives established Christian Democratic Parties
-these practised a form of democratic corporatism in which social institutions form a social partnership to preserve social stability
-Christian democrats have supported a social market economy where a strong welfare state and Keynesian-type economic policies create a sufficient level of wealth to preserve authority, order and social stability
What were the beliefs of the new right?
-Since Burke there has been a partially libertarian strand with regards to the economy
-this has maintained that the running of the economy is best left to business and free markets and free from interference from the state
-a strong state is required to maintain public order and respect for authority
-the market should be the instrument of social discipline within the economic sphere
-Burkes 'little platoons' should be dominant in terms of organising and preserving social stability
What has occurred to the New right at the end of the 20th Century?
-Was revived, after one nation dominance, in the 1970's under neo-liberalism
-these conservatives believed that state intervention in the economy had damaged economic growth, created militant trade unionism and a welfare dependency culture and a breakdown in public morality
-80's and 90's pursed the rolling back of the state in the economy, whilst strengthening and order role of the state
What is the relationship between conservatism and liberalism?
-developed in reaction to liberal ideas of the emerging bourgeoisie in the early 19th Century
-this had differing view on human nature, nature of authority, the need for social change and the nature of society
-19th century it's main aim was to prevent or limit the changes advocated by liberalism
What was its main concern in the 20th century?
-prevent or limit the moves towards greater economic equality pursued by various strands of socialism
-conservatism found itself challenged to the right from fascism, sometimes working with it
What is the argument of Conservatisms position at the end of the 20th century?
-conservatism ended the 20th century in a relatively strong electoral position although it had adopted significant sections of classical liberalism economic agenda in order to do so
-conservatism had transformed itself almost out of existence
-in the political and social spheres it main idealogical adversary is modern liberalism with it support for a rights based society, support for individual freedom, cultural tolerance and a multilateral international order
What is the conservative view of human nature?
-Have largely pessimistic and non-utopian view of human nature
-regarded as imperfect, a situation that cannot be remedied
What are humans regarded as?
1. Psychologically limited
3. Fearing isolation and instability
4. Preferring safety and security
5. Morally imperfect
6. Selfish and greedy, desiring power
What do humans therefore need?
-Like to belong, know where they stand in society
-humans desire a sense of identity and a sense of connectedness
-there is a need for a stable and predictable social order
-too much liberty creates the potential for insecurity, anarchy and uncertainty
What is the traditional con view of human nature?
-human intellect and reasoning is limited; as such we are incapable of fully understanding the world and universe around it- Oakeshott
-abstract ideas and theories are therefore likely to be incorrect
-an empirical approach to change
-humans need to take a pragmatic approach to change, avoiding dogma ideals since these could lead to among society worse
What is the new right view of human nature?
-in the sphere of economics humans are considered capable of acting rationally
-these were used in the 1980's to explain why the economic system needed to adopt a free-market approach
-however the adaption of economic theories based on John Nash's have theory rested on very negative views of human nature, humans are strictly self-interested and non-altruistic