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99 terms

Medical Terminology (chapter 5)

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alimentary
pertaining to the digestive tract
anus
terminal opening of the digestive tract through which feces are discharged.
digestion
breakdown of food into elements suitable for cell metabolism
gastroenterology
medical specialty of the stomach and intestines
gastroenterologist
medical specialist in gastroeneterology
laparoscopy
examination of contents of abdomen using an endoscope
bolus
a single mass of a substance
deglutition
act of swallowing
masticate
to chew
peristalis
waves of alternate contraction and relaxation of the intestinal wall to move food along the digestive tract
dentine
dense, ivory-like substance located under the enamel of a tooth
enamel
hard substance covering a tooth
mouth
external opening of a cavity or canal
nasopharnyx
region of the pharnyx at the back of the nose and above the soft palate
saliva
secretion in mouth from salivary glands
sublingual
underneath the tongue
submandibular
underneath the mandible
tongue
mobile muscle mass in the mouth; bears the taste buds
aphthous
painful small oral ulcers (canker sores)
gingivitus
inflammation of the gums
gingivectomy
surgical removal of diseased gum tissue
haltosis
bad breath odor
periodontal
around a tooth
pyorrhea
purulent discharge
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing
emesis
vomit
hematemesis
vomitting of red blood
hernia
protrusion of a structure through the tissue that normally contains it
herniorrhaphy
repair or hernia
postprandinal
following a meal
reflux
backward flow
varices
dialated, torturous vein
duodenum
1st part of small intestine; approx. 12 finger-breadths in length
pylorus
exit area of the stomach
anorexia
w/o an appetite; or an aversion of food
dyspepsia
"upset stomach," epigastric pain, nausea, and gas
gastritis
inflammation of the lining of the stomach
gastroscope
endoscope for examinging the inside of the stomach
gastroscopy
endoscopic emam of the stomach
peptic
relating to the stomach and duodenum
absorption
uptake of nutrients and water by cells in the GI tract
cecum
blind pouch that is the first part of the large intestine
ileocecal
pertaining to the junction of the ileum and cecum
jejunum
segment of small intestine b/w the duodenum and the ileum
villi
thin,hair-like projection, particularly of a mucous membrane lining a cavity
bile
fluid secreted by the liver into the duodenum
cirrhosis
extensive fibrotic liver disease
hepatitus
inflammation of the liver
jaundice
yelllow staining of tissues with bile pigments, including bilirubin
cholecystitis
inflamation of the gallbladder
cholencystectomy
surgical removal of the gallbladder
cholendocholithiasis
presence of a gallstone in the common bile duct
cholelithiasis
condition of having bile stones (gallstones)
insulin
pancreatic hormone the supresses blood glucose levels and transports glucose into cells
pancreas
lobulated gland, the head of which is tucked into the curve of the duodenum
diarrhea
frequent loose or liquid stools
endoscopy
the use of an endoscope
endoscope
instrument used for visual examination within a tubular or hollow organ
flatulence
excessive gas in the stomach or intestines
flatus
gas or air expelled through anus
constipation
hard, infrequent bowel movements
dehydration
process of losing body water
dysentery
disease w/ diarrhea, bowel spasms, fever, and dehydration
gastroenteritis
inflammation of the stomach and intestines
malnutrition
inadequate nutrition from poor diet or inadequate absorption of nutrients
anus
opening through which wastes leave the digestive tract
anorectal junction
junction b/w anus & rectum
appendix
small blind projection from the pouch of the cecum
appendicitus
inflammation of appendix
appendectomy
surgical removal of the appendix
colon
the part of the large intestine between the cecum and the rectum
colic
spasmodic,crampy pains in the abdomen
colitis
inflammation of colon
feces
undigested waste material discharged from the bowel
fecal
pertaining to feces
rectum
terminal part of colon from the sigmoid to the anal canal
rectal
pertaining to rectum
sigmoid
sigmoid colon is shaped like an "S"; relating to the sigmoid flexure in the large intestine
bowel
another name for intestine
diverticulum
pouch-like opening or sac from a tubular structure (e.g. intestine)
diverticula/diverticulosis
presence of a number of small pouches in the wall of the large intestine
diverticulitis
inflammation of diverticula
fissure
deep furrow or cleft
hemorrhoid
dilated rectal vein producing painful anal swelling
intussuspection
the slipping of one part of the bowel inside another to cause obstruction
melena
passage of black & tarry stools
occult blood
Blood detected in stool by means of a chemical test but not apparent to the naked eye.
peritoneum
The membrane that lines, protects, and supports the abdominal organs.
polyp
mass of tissue that projects into the lumen of bowel
proctitis
inflammation of lining of rectum
anastomosis
surgically made union b/w tubular structures
endoscopy
use of endoscope
colonoscopy
visual examination of the colon from the cecum to the rectum, using endoscopy
protoscopy
exam of anus by endoscopy
sigmoidoscopy
exam of sigmoid colon by endoscopy
gastroscopy
exam of inside stomach by endoscopy
enema
injection of fluid into rectum
colostomy
artificial opening from the colon to the outside of the body
ileostomy
artificial opening from the ileum to the outside of the body