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Three layers of tracheal wall (inside of trachea to outside)

mucosa, submucosa, adventitia

What type of tissue is the mucosa layer? What type of cell is found in the mucosa layer? What special layer is below the mucosa layer?

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium; goblet cells; lamina propria

What type of tissue is the submucosa layer? What special structures does it contain?

thick connective tissue; mucous and seromucous glands

What type of cell in the lung secretes surfactant? What is the shape of its nucleus?

Type II Alveolar cell; rounded

What type of cell in the lung is involved in diffusion of gases? What is the shape of its nucleus?

Type I Alveolar cell; flat

What type of tissue lines the alveoli mucosa?

simple squamous epithelium

what are the two types of cells that secrete mucus in the tracheal wall? what is the difference between the two?

goblet: secretory unit cells that lie between other cells in epithelium

seromucous: glands in which some cells are serous and others are mucous

what are the two types of cells found in the alveoli and how are they different in shape and function? where are they found?

Type I: flattened cells, gas exchange

Type II: cuboidal cells, secrete SURFACTANT


what type of tissue is the lamina propria?
where does the lamina propria lie? which layer of the tracheal wall is it in?

elastic fibers; below epithelium; mucosa layer

What is the function of the c-shaped hyaline cartilage rings?

support tracheal mucosa and prevents collapse of trachea

Trachealis muscle

Bands of smooth muscle on posterior side of trachea, joins the free ends of the hyaline cartilage rings

Inner lining of trachea

pseudostratified cilated columnar epithelium


Outermost layer of trachea


Conical organ with broad, concave base resting on diaphragm, blunt peak (apex) projects slightly above clavicle

Visceral pleura

Serous membrane covering surface of lungs

Parietal Pleura

Visceral pleura turns back on itself at hilum and forms parietal pleura

Root of lung

Made up of primary bronchus, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves

Cardiac notch

Indentation in left lung where heart presses against it

Lobes of R Lung

Has 3 lobes: Superior, middle, inferior

Lobes of L Lung

2 lobes: Superior & inferior

Primary bronchi

The bronchi that arise from the trachea and enter the lung. Right bronchus is slightly wider and more vertical.


Continuations of airway that lack supportive cartilage and are 1mm or less in diameter.

What are the alveolar ducts? What type of tissue lines them?

they are outpocketings of alveoli that end in alveolar sacs; lines by simple squamous epithelium

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