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44 terms

Anatomy & Physiology Ch. 1

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Organ
A part of the body formed of two or more tissues and adapted to carry out a specific function; e.g., the stomach.
Cervical
Refers to the neck or the necklike portion of the organ or structure.
Endocrine System
Body system that includes internal organs that secrete hormones.
Thoracic
Refers to the CHEST.
Frontal (coronal) section
Longitudinal (vertical) plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
Buccal
Pertaining to the CHEEK.
Abdomen
Portion of the body between the diaphragm and the pelvis.
Tissue
A group of similar cells (and their intercellular substance) specialized to perform a specific function; primary ______ types of the body are epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissue.
Axilla
ARMPIT.
Lymphatic System
System consisting of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphoid organs and tissues; drains excess tissue fluid from the extracellular space and provides a site for immune surveillance.
Hypothalamus
Region of the diencephalon forming the floor of the third ventricle of the brain.
Transverse (horizontal) Section
A plane running from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts.
Organ System
A group of organs that work together to perform a vital body function; e.g., the nervous system.
Physiology
Study of the function of living organisms.
Effector
Organ, gland, or muscle capable of being activated by nerve endings.
Irritability
Ability to respond to a stimulus.
Muscular System
The organ system consisting of the skeletal muscles of the body and their connective tissue attachments.
Inguinal
Pertaining to the groin region.
Urinary System
System primarily responsible for water electrolyte, and acid-base balance and removal of nitrogenous wastes.
Tarsal
One of the seven bones that form the ankle and heel.
Brachial
Pertaining to the ARM.
Medial
Toward the midline of the body.
Homeostasis
A state of body equilibrium or stable internal environment of the body.
Midsagittal (median) Section
Specific sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline.
Cranial
Pertaining to the SKULL.
Skeletal System
System of the protection and support composed primarily of bone and cartilage.
Anterior
The front of an organism, organ, or part; the ventral surface.
Negative Feedback Mechanisms
The most common of homeostatic control mechanisms. The net effect is that the output of the system shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity.
Excretion
Elimination of waste products from the body.
Distal
Away from the attached end of a limb or the origin of a structure.
Organism
The living animal (or plant), which represents the sum total of all its organ systems working together to maintain life.
Lateral
Away from the midline of the body.
Ventral
Pertaining to the front; anterior.
Atom
The smallest part of an element; indivisible by ordinary chemical means.
Proximal
Toward the attached end of a limb or the origin of a structure.
Receptor
(1) A cell or nerve ending of a sensory neuron specialized to respond to particular types of stimuli. (2) Molecule that binds specifically with other molecules e.g., neurotransmitters, hormones, antigens.
Positive Feedback Mechanisms
Feedback that tends to cause the level of a variable to change in the same direction as an initial change.
Carpal
One of the eight bones of the WRIST.
Anatomy
Study of the structure of living organisms.
Cell
The structural and functional unit of living organims; contains a nucleus and a variety of organelles enclosed by a limiting membrane.
Gland
Organ specialized to secrete or excrete substances for further use in the body or for elimination.
Sagittal Section
A longitudinal (vertical) plane that divides the body or any of its parts into right and left portions.
Inferior (caudal)
Pertaining to a position near the tail end of the long axis of the body.
Oxidative Phosphorylation
The synthesis of ATP using energy given off during the electron transport phase of respiration.