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UCB Physio Lab Finals - Set 2
7.6 Measurements of Blood Pressure 7.7 Cardiovascular System and Physical Fitness
Terms in this set (25)
What is Cardiac Output?
The amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle in 1 minute
How do you calculate Cardiac Output?
Stroke Volume × Heart rate
millilitres per beat
Korotkoff sounds are:
The various vibration noises heard when taking a blood pressure
Korotkoff Phase 1
A sharp thump
Korotkoff Phase 2
A blowing or whooshing sound
Korotkoff Phase 3
A crisp, intense tapping
Korotkoff Phase 4
A softer blowing sound that fades
Korotkoff Phase 5
Laminar or "layered" flow of blood through the arteries occurs when all parts of the fluid move smoothly in the same direction, parallel to the axis of the vessel. Blood in the central axial stream moves the fastest, and blood closer to the artery wall moves more slowly.
Turbulent flow occurs when some parts of the fluid move in radial and circumferential directions, churning and mixing the blood, which may cause vibrations and sounds.
Before inflating the cuff, what describes the blood flow in the brachial artery?
Blood flow in the brachial artery before the cuff is inflated is mostly laminar, and so is smooth and silent.
What is pulse pressure?
Pulse pressure is systolic minus diastolic pressure. As the blood pressure rises from diastolic to systolic values within an artery, the rise in hydrostatic pressure against the artery wall causes the artery to expand somewhat. This is the "pulse" you feel when you press your fingers against the outside of an artery.
What is mean arterial pressure?
The mean arterial pressure is equal to the diastolic pressure plus one-third of the pulse pressure. The mean arterial pressure represents the combined systolic and diastolic pressure that drives the blood from the arterial tree into the blood capillaries.
Normal Blood Pressure
Systolic = under 120 mm Hg
Diastolic = under 80 mm Hg
Systolic = 120 - 139 mm Hg
Diastolic = 80 - 89 mm Hg
Stage 1 Hypertension
Systolic = 140 - 159 mm Hg
Diastolic = 90 - 99 mm Hg
Stage 2 Hypertension
Systolic = 160 mm Hg or greater
Diastolic = 100 mm Hg or greater
is the maximum oxygen uptake or the maximum rate of oxygen consumption by the body.
is that percent of one's aerobic capacity when the muscle's anaerobic respiration production of lactic acid (lactate) rises significantly (normally at about 50-70% of one's aerobic capacity).
The main cause of higher aerobic capacity of endurance-trained athletes is
a higher maximum cardiac output, and thus higher rates of oxygen delivery to the muscles in endurance athletes.
What cardiovascular adaptations are associated with endurance training?
Endurance training increases the cardiac output through a higher blood volume and a stronger contraction of the ventricles, which thus ejects more blood per beat. The increase in oxygen demand also stimulates an increase in blood volume. The higher stroke volume and larger blood volume allow the same cardiac output to be achieved at a slower heart rate and thus endurance improves with training and training improves performance.
Explain higher maximal oxygen uptake.
Maximal oxygen uptake, or aerobic capacity, measures the maximum rate of oxygen consumption by the body.
The intensity of exercise can be rated by the percent of the aerobic capacity attained. In most healthy people, blood levels of lactic acid (lactate) rise significantly when exercise is performed at about 50-70% of their aerobic capacity. This is the lactate (or anaerobic) threshold.
Endurance trained athletes have a higher aerobic capacity and may not reach their lactate threshold until exercising at about 80% of their maximal oxygen uptake.
The primary cause of this higher aerobic capacity is their higher maximum cardiac outputs, and thus their higher rates of oxygen delivery to the muscles.
In turn, this rise in cardiac output is brought about by a stronger contraction of the ventricles (thus ejecting more blood per beat) and an increase in blood volume.
Define Lactic threshold
the percent of aerobic capacity when lactic acid rises significantly
How does the increase in Blood pressure and pulse rate after exercise, and the return of these values to baseline following exercise, compare in people who are and who are not physically fit?
Fit individuals have a higher stroke vol and a greater cardiac output than those who are unfit.
Higher cardiac output increases the rate of blood flow and the delivery of oxygen to the exercising muscles. Conditioned muscles also have an increased ability to extract oxygen from the blood because of biochemical and metabolic changes within the muscle cells.
At a given level of physical exercise, therefore, the physically fir have a slower rate of increase in the cardiac rate and a faster rate of return to the resting cardiac rate after exercise.
Since mean arterial blood pressure is directly related to cardiac rate and to cardiac output, the fit person will have a slower rise in blood pressure and a correspondingly faster return to resting pressures after exercise.
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