44 terms

society: the basics ch3

Sigmund Freud's
study of elements of personality: id, ego, superego
Freud's term for the human being's basic drives
Freud's term for a person's conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society: Realitility
Freud's term for the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual: Morals
Life instinct: named after the Greek god of love
death instinct: Greek word for death
Jean Piaget
Theory of Cognitive Development
Sigmund Freud
Elements of Personality
Jean Piaget
sensorimotor Stage, preperational stage, concrete operational stage, and formal operational stage
sensorimotor stage
0-2 years old, experience the world only through their senses
Preoperational Stage
2-6 years old, first use language and other symbols
Concrete Operational stage
7-11 years old, first see causal connections in their surroundings
Operational Stage
about 12 years of age, think abstractly and critically
Lawrence Kohlberg
Theory of Moral Development
Lawrence Kohlberg: Theory of develoment
preconventional level, conventional level, and postconventional level
preconventional level
experience the world in terms of pain and pleasure
conventional level
appears by teens years: lose some of their selfishness as they learn to define right and wrong
postconventional level
people move beyond their society's norms to consider abstract ethical principles
Erik H. Erikson
Eight stages of Development
eight stages of development
infancy, toddlerhood, preschool, preadolescence, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, old age
stage 1: infancy
trust versus mistrust: birth to 18 months
stage 2: toddlerhood
autonomy versus doubt and shame: up to age 3
stage 3: preschool
initiative versus guilt: 4-5 years old
stage 4: preadolescence
industriousness versus inferiority: 6-13 years
stage 5; adolescence
gaining identity versus confusion: teen years
stage 6: young adulthood
intimacy versus isolation: young adults (falling in love)
stage 7: middle adulthood
making a difference versus self-adsorption: middle age
stage 8: old age
integrity versus despair: near the end of live
Agents of Socialization
The family, school, peer group, and mass media
nurture and race and class
Gender and what children learn
peer group
a social group whose members have interests, social position, and age in common
mass media
the means for delivering impersonal communications to a vast audience: TV and radio
Socialization and the Life Course
childhood, adolescence, adulthood, old age, death and dying and life course
Harry and Margaret Harlow
research with rhesus monkeys
rhesus monkeys
they want comfort instead of food
the lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture
a person's fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling
anticipatory socialization
learning that helps a person achieve a desired position
Auguste Comte
coined the term sociology in 1838, describe this new way of thinking.
three stages, theological, metaphysical, and scientfic
theological stage
religious view that society expressed God's will
metaphysical stage
people saw society as a natural rather than supernatural phenomenon
scientific stage
analyze the physical world, to the study of society. applying the scientific approach