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Sigmund Freud's

study of elements of personality: id, ego, superego


Freud's term for the human being's basic drives


Freud's term for a person's conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society: Realitility


Freud's term for the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual: Morals


Life instinct: named after the Greek god of love


death instinct: Greek word for death

Jean Piaget

Theory of Cognitive Development

Sigmund Freud

Elements of Personality

Jean Piaget

sensorimotor Stage, preperational stage, concrete operational stage, and formal operational stage

sensorimotor stage

0-2 years old, experience the world only through their senses

Preoperational Stage

2-6 years old, first use language and other symbols

Concrete Operational stage

7-11 years old, first see causal connections in their surroundings

Operational Stage

about 12 years of age, think abstractly and critically

Lawrence Kohlberg

Theory of Moral Development

Lawrence Kohlberg: Theory of develoment

preconventional level, conventional level, and postconventional level

preconventional level

experience the world in terms of pain and pleasure

conventional level

appears by teens years: lose some of their selfishness as they learn to define right and wrong

postconventional level

people move beyond their society's norms to consider abstract ethical principles

Erik H. Erikson

Eight stages of Development

eight stages of development

infancy, toddlerhood, preschool, preadolescence, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, old age

stage 1: infancy

trust versus mistrust: birth to 18 months

stage 2: toddlerhood

autonomy versus doubt and shame: up to age 3

stage 3: preschool

initiative versus guilt: 4-5 years old

stage 4: preadolescence

industriousness versus inferiority: 6-13 years

stage 5; adolescence

gaining identity versus confusion: teen years

stage 6: young adulthood

intimacy versus isolation: young adults (falling in love)

stage 7: middle adulthood

making a difference versus self-adsorption: middle age

stage 8: old age

integrity versus despair: near the end of live

Agents of Socialization

The family, school, peer group, and mass media


nurture and race and class


Gender and what children learn

peer group

a social group whose members have interests, social position, and age in common

mass media

the means for delivering impersonal communications to a vast audience: TV and radio

Socialization and the Life Course

childhood, adolescence, adulthood, old age, death and dying and life course

Harry and Margaret Harlow

research with rhesus monkeys

rhesus monkeys

they want comfort instead of food


the lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture


a person's fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling

anticipatory socialization

learning that helps a person achieve a desired position

Auguste Comte

coined the term sociology in 1838, describe this new way of thinking.


three stages, theological, metaphysical, and scientfic

theological stage

religious view that society expressed God's will

metaphysical stage

people saw society as a natural rather than supernatural phenomenon

scientific stage

analyze the physical world, to the study of society. applying the scientific approach

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