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UCB Physio Lab Finals - Set 5
8.4 Respiration and Acid-Base Balance 9.3 Clinical examination of Urine
Terms in this set (46)
Why is precise H+ regulation essential in the body?
H+ influences almost every enzyme system; optimal H+ concentrations necessary for cell and body functions
Does the body regulates pH?
No. Technically, the body regulates [H+]; pH is just something people use to simplify understanding [H+]
Define an 'acid'
Molecule containing H+ atoms that can be released into solution
Define a 'base'
Ion or molecule that can accept a H+ atom, binding it and removing it from solution
K = [H+][A-] / [HA]
What is K?
Is a small K a strong or weak acid?
Is a big K a strong or weak acid?
Small K = weak acid (weak H+ donor)
Large K = strong acid (strong H+ donor)
Why does CO2 have a powerful effect on the acid/base balance of blood?
CO2 is converted into HCO3 by carbonic anhydrase. Bicarb acts as a buffer of blood.
If the blood has a pH lower than 7.35 it's called
If pH is higher than 7.45, it's called
The buffer system is
most resistant to changes in [H+] when pH = pK
The buffer system has the ability to act as a buffer one pH unit on either side of pK.
The buffer system strength is directly related to concentration of the buffer components
List the three blood buffering systems
-phosphate buffer solution
-protein buffers system
-bicarbonate buffer system
A large fraction of all chemical buffering power is attributed to intracellular proteins. The most important blood-borne protein buffer is
The enzyme in red blood cells that catalyzes the formation of carbonic acid is
The respiratory equation is:
CO2 + H2O ---> H2CO3 ---> H+ + HCO3-
increased CO2 + H2O --> increased H2CO3 --> increased H+ + increased HCO3-
ALWAYS leads to rise in CO2
This represents a shift to the right toward the increased production of hydrogen ions. An increase in hydrogen ions will result in a decrease in pH
How does hyperventilation and hypoventilation affect the blood pH?
If you increase carbon dioxide (due to hypoventilation - not enough exhalation) this will result in an increase in hydrogen ions resulting in a drop in pH.
If you decrease the carbon dioxide (due to hyperventilation --- exhaling too much carbon dioxide) this will result in a decrease in hydrogen ions resulting in a rise in pH.
How does your breathing rate change after 10 sec. of hyperventilation?
Following 10 seconds of hyperventilation, the breathing rate should have decreased significantly. Breathing rate is related to blood carbon dioxide levels and pH. Hyperventilation results in the excessive elimination of CO2, lowered carbonic acid, and a rise in pH. The rise in pH reduces the desire to breathe until the amount of CO2 in the blood again rises adequately high to restore a more normal pH. The normal pH should restore normal influence over the respiratory centers in the medulla oblongata, resulting in a more normal breathing pattern.
Why paper bags are used to breathe to help hyperventilation.
Theory is that C02 will be exhaled into bag and reinhaled.
Because paper bags are not air tight, fresh O2 will also be inhaled. Also, the bag opening and closing has a psychological effect.
is the leakage of proteins into the urine
When kidneys are inflamed, there is increased permeability of
filtration barriers into the glomerular capillaries.
What are 2 results of increased permeability of the filtration barriers into the glomerular capillaries?
2) Casts in the urine sediment.
Leakage of plasma proteins into the urine causes loss of
solutes that are responsible for the colloid osmotic pressure of the plasma.
is the appearance of glucose in the urine due to hyperglycemia (high plasma glucose concentration).
Glucose is not normally found in the urine.
How can a person have hyperglycemia without glycosuria?
When the carrier proteins for glucose in the plasma membrane of the cells in the proximal tubule are not saturated
Renal plasma threshold for glucose
the plasma concentration of glucose required to reach the transport rate at saturation (transport maximum).
When is the glucose reabsorbed?
When the plasma glucose concentration is below the renal plasma threshold.
What happens when the glucose concentration is at or above the renal plasma threshold?
Glucose "spills over" into the urine (glycosuria occurs)
What test is used to measure diabetes mellitus if it is suspected?
Glucose tolerance test
When there is carbohydrate deprivation and/or a high protein diet, the body relies on the metabolism of
fats. (this also happens to diabetics)
Insulin is necessary for the transport of glucose from the blood into
the body cells
Metabolism of fat:
1. Triglycerides are hydrolyzed to fatty acids and glycerol.
2. Fatty acids are converted into smaller intermediate compounds (ketone bodies)
3. Ketone bodies are broken down in aerobic cellular respiration, releasing energy.
When the production of ketone bodies from fatty acid metabolism exceeds the ability of the body to metabolize these compounds, they accumulate in the blood (ketonemia) and spill over into the urine (ketonuria).
What is hematuria?
When red blood cells found in the urine.
What is hemoglobinuria?
The release of hemoglobin from red cells caused by the low osmotic pressure of the urine. It's also found in samples from menstruating women.
Hemoglobin can appear in the urine in what 2 events?
1) In the event of hemolysis in the system blood vessels of rupture in the capillaries of the glomerulus
2) Hemorrhage in the urinary system
What destroys old red blood cells and convert the heme groups of hemoglobin into the pigment bilirubin?
Fixed phagocytic cells of the spleen and bone marrow (reticuloendothelial system).
Bilirubin is secreted into the blood and carried to the liver where it is bonded to
glucuronic acid. Most of this is secreted into the bile as bile pigment; the rest is released into the blood.
Abnormally high levels of blood bilirubin (hyperbilirubinemia) may result from
1) increase rate of RBC destruction
2) liver damage (hepatitis & cirrhosis)
3) obstruction of the common bile duct (from gallstones)
A condition characterized by a brownish-yellow pigmentation of the skin, sclera of the eye, and mucous membrane. As a result of an increase in blood bilirubin.
An increase in urine bilirubin may be associated with jaundice due to
1) liver disease
2) bile duct obstruction
Microscopic examination of the urine sediment reveal the presence of
What are cylindrical structures formed by precipitation of protein molecules?
Large amounts of casts indicates
glomerulonephritis or nephrosis
What 3 types of cells may be contained by casts?
3) epithelial cells
Presence of large numbers of crystal may indicate
Large numbers of uric acid crystals may indicate
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UCB Physio Lab Finals - Set 1
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UCB Physio Lab Finals - Set 3
UCB Physio Lab Finals - Set 4
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