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Introduction to Sociology TEST 1 (Chapters 1-5)
Terms in this set (47)
What is sociology?
the systematic study of human society
What is the 'sociological perspective'?
seeing the general in the particular; sociology's special point of view that sees general patterns of society in the lives of particular people.
What did Lillian Rubin discover?
Summary: She discovered that what women expected in a marriage partner had a lot to do with their social class position (of the men and the women themselves)
Women that had higher social class positions tended to favor men who were ready listeners, and were sensitive (emotional)
Women that had lower social class positions tended to favor men who were not violent, and had steady jobs (logical)
What does seeing the 'strange in the familiar' mean?
It means that sociologists work to avoid the familiar idea that human behavior is simply a matter of what people decide to do.
What does our sociology textbook say about people attending college in the United States?
Most U.S. college students are between the ages of 18-30 because society links college attendance to this period of life.
What did Emile Durkheim say about suicide?
He found that some categories of people are more likely than others to take their own lives.
Most Men, Protestants, wealthy people, and unmarried people had much higher suicide rates than women, Catholics and Jews, the poor, and married people.
Freedom weakens social ties , thus increasing the risk of suicide.
Who is Emile Durkheim?
One of sociology's pioneers who lived from 1858-1917 that found that social forces even influences suicide.
What is the Global Perspective?
The study of the larger world and our society's place in it
What is the structural-functional approach?
A framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability.
What is the premise for structural-functional approach?
It came from Auguste Comte, who pointed out the need to keep society unified at a time when many traditions were breaking down.
What is the Race-Conflict Theory?
The study of society that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories
What is the Symbolic-Interaction Approach?
A framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals
What is a concept?
a mental construct that represents some part of the world in a simplified form
What is variable?
A concept where whose value changes from case to case.
What is measurement?
A procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case
What is Interpretive Sociology?
The study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world
What is Critical Sociology?
The study of society that focuses on the need for social change
What is androcentricity and why is it wrong in Gender research?
Approaching an issue from ONLY the male perspective.
Research that only seeks to understand the human behavior cannot ignore half of humanity.
What is overgeneralization and why is it wrong in Gender research?
Taking a few results from research from a few amount from either one or both genders and generalizing humanity based on those results.
There is diversity across both genders, it should not be overgeneralized as a whole of society
What is Gender Blindness and why is it wrong in Gender research?
Failing to consider there is diversity in gender, at all.
There is diversity across both genders, it shouldn't be generalized to a whole society.
What is Double Standards and why is it wrong in Gender research?
Criticizing a gender's values/characteristics while praising those same characteristics on the other gender.
Researchers must be careful not to distort what they study by judging men and women differently.
What is the Hawthorne Effect?
A study's results are affected by participant's knowledge that they are taking part in an experience or being treated differently than usual
What is culture?
the ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together form a people's way of life
What is culture in a material sense?
Any physical things that were created by members in a society
What is culture in a non-material sense?
Any ideas created by members in a society
How many languages are listed by the Census Bureau?
What is language?
The key to the world of culture; a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with each other
What are symbols?
Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture
What are the Key Values of U.S culture?
1. Equal Opportunity
2. Achievement and Success
3. Material Comfort
4. Activity and Work
5. Practicality and Efficiency Progress
6. Democracy and Free Enterprise
8. Racism and Group Superiority
What are mores and folkways?
Mores: norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance (taboos)
Folkways: norms for routine or casual interaction (appropriate greetings, clothing, etc)
What is a subculture?
Cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society's population
What is multiculturalism?
A perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the US and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions
What is counterculture?
Cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society
What is ethnocentrism?
The belief that our own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures
What are Lenski's five types of societies?
1. Hunting and Gathering
2. Horticultural and Pastoral
Who is Karl Marx?
Founder of communism (1818-1883)
What are Marx's theories on social conflict and capitalism?
Social conflict: Struggle between segments of society over valued resources.
Capitalists: People who own factories and other businesses in pursuits of profits.
Summary: Most important type of social conflict was "class conflict" arising from the way a society produces material goods.
Who is Max Weber?
An early thinker; Protestant Ethic
- German sociologist
- Religion and the origin of capitalism
- Religion is the central force in social change
- Spirit of capitalism
What are Weber's theories of ideal societies/Rationalization of society?
Rationalization of society: The historical change from traditional and rationality as the main type of human thought.
What are Durkheim's theories of society and function?
'The significance of any social fact', Durkheim said, 'is more than what individual see in their immediate lives, social facts help along the operation of a society as a whole.'
What happened in Anna's story (Chapter 5)?
Anna has been abused since birth from her grandfather and her mentally-impaired mother. She was 6 when she was found, and was unresponsive, never knowing how to smile or feel anything.
What is socialization?
The lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture
What is the role of nature vs. nurture?
Nature: Genetics determine other's behavior. Personality and traits are in our 'nature'.
Nurture: Our environment, life experiences, and upbringing determine other's behavior. People are 'nurtured' to behave in certain ways.
What did we learn from monkeys and research?
Harvey and Margaret Hallows concluded that through the monkey experiments, having the mother/father cradle their infant is crucial, as isolation for an infant after about 6 months can cause irreversible emotional and behavioral damage.
Who are the following theorists and what are their main theories?:
Freud: Id, Ego, Superego
Piaget: Sensorimotor, Pre-operational, Formal Operational
Kohlberg: Pre-conventional, Conventional, Post-conventional
Gilligan: Girl vs. Boys morals
Mead: Social behaviorism
Erikson: 8 stages of development
What is the impact of the following on socialization?
The Mass Media
The Family: babies are dependent on caregivers for skills, values, and beliefs; race shaped social identity = social standing; all social backgrounds want their children to be popular; 60% of low-income families want their children to be obedient; well to-do parents praise children to think independently
The School: includes people of different backgrounds (helps open children's minds to other cultural beliefs and diversity)
The Mass Media: Average household has at least 1 TV that's on for 8hrs a day; more than half their free time is watching TV; School age children spend 7.5 hrs a day watching TV and playing video games; TV makes children more passive and less likely to use their imagination
What are the stages of Childhood, Adolescence, Adulthood, Old Age, and Death and Dying?
Adulthood: 19-30; 30-60
Old Age: 60+
Death and Dying: usually after the age of 54
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